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Language peer sets for BASIC:
United States
United States/1963
Designed 1963
1960s languages
Third generation
Early Cold War
Genus Dartmouth Basics
On-Line
Dartmouth Basics
BASIC family
Conversational
Dartmouth Basics/1963
BASIC family/1963
Conversational/1963
Dartmouth Basics/United States
BASIC family/United States
Conversational/United States
On-Line
On-Line/1963
On-Line/us

BASIC(ID:176/bas009)

Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code  

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1963
Published: 1963
Genus: Dartmouth Basics
Sammet category: On-Line


Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Dartmouth College 1963-1964

Language originally designed for Dartmouth's experimental timesharing system in the early 1960's.

Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. John G. Kemeny & Thomas E. Kurtz, Dartmouth College, designed 1963, first ran on an GE255 on May 1, 1964

Contrary to popular belief, the original BASIC was a powerful and elegant hybrid of the best notios of progamming amthematical expressions, as is witnessed by the fact that the first published example solved differential equations! (See below) Kemeny was a highly respected maths educator, who pioneered the "new math" in the 60s. Also not a backwards engineered acronym.

For the skeptics, they only have to look at the literature, and see how scientific, engineering, statistical and artificial intelligence programs were written in BASIC. In particular, attention should be paid to the three volume statistical and engineering work by Fred Ruckdeschel published by Byte. HP test equipment featured Rocky Mountain BASIC, while other embedded basics ran a large number of machines as an alternative to FORTH (when the ROM BASIC was removed fromt he original PCs, for years afterwards absence of an operating system was announced as "ROM BASIC not loaded").

Kemeny and Kurtz themselves distinguished between their "True BASIC" (which featured matrix manipulation before other mainstream languages) and what they termed "Street BASIC" which was basically a manufacturer's hack.





People:
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CORC BASIC   Slight Influence
DART BASIC   Influence
DOPE BASIC   Influence
FORTRAN II BASIC   Incorporated some features of
JOSS BASIC   positive partial Influence
BASIC ABASIC   Implementation
BASIC ACOS   Extension of
BASIC ANSI BASIC   Standardisation
BASIC Applesoft BASIC   Implementation
BASIC Astro Basic   Implementation
BASIC B   Influence
BASIC Basic-80   Implementation
BASIC BASIC-PLUS   Extension of
BASIC BASYS   Extension of
BASIC BEDSOCS   Extension of
BASIC BPL   Augmentation of
BASIC CABALA   Extension of
BASIC COMAL   Evolution of
BASIC DARK BASIC   Implementation
BASIC Dartmouth BASIC   Alias
BASIC dataBASIC   Augmentation of
BASIC EBasic   Implementation
BASIC Force III   Incorporated some features of
BASIC FORDESK   Influence
BASIC GRASS   Extension of
BASIC LSE   Extension of
BASIC MINIMAL BASIC   Subset
BASIC NBS   Extension of
BASIC PBasic   Extension of
BASIC RASP   Extension of
BASIC S-Basic   Extension of
BASIC SEBOL   Augmentation of
BASIC SQURL   Influence
BASIC SuperBasic   Implementation
BASIC SuperBasic   Implementation
BASIC True BASIC   Evolution of
BASIC UBASIC   Extension of
BASIC UNBASIC   Extension of
BASIC UWBIC   Implementation
BASIC VAL   Extension of
BASIC VAX Basic   Extension of
BASIC VS BASIC   Augmentation of
BASIC XBASIC   Extension of

References:
  • (1964) "BASIC Summary Card", Dartmouth 1964 Extract: Page 1 Extract: Page 2
  • (1964) "BASIC: A Manual for BASIC, the elementary algebraic language designed for use with the Dartmouth Time Sharing System" 1 October 1964 pdf Picture: The first page of instruction in the original Dartmouth Manual
  • [GEC] (1966) 'BASIC' Language Reference Manual, General Electric Information Systems Division (Sept., 1966, revised).
  • Kemeny, J. (1966) Kemeny, J. G. and Kurtz, T. E., BASIC (User's Manual) (3rd ed.), Dartmouth College Computation Center, Hanover, N. H. (Jan., 1966).
  • Kenemy, J.G. (1966) Kenemy, J.G. "The Computer at Dartmouth"
          in Orr (ed) (1968) Orr, William (ed) "Conversational Computing", 1968
  • Wood, L. H., Reinfelds, J., Seitz, R. N, and Clem, (1966) Wood, L. H., Reinfelds, J., Seitz, R. N, and Clem, P. L., Jr. "The AMTRAN System" pp22-27 Extract: General philosophy Extract: Conclusion Extract: Other conversational mode systems Extract: Hardware Configuration
          in (1966) Datamation 12(10) Oct 1966
  • Kemeny, J. (1967) Kemeny, J. G. and Kurtz, T. E., BASIC Programming. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1967.
          in (1966) Datamation 12(10) Oct 1966
  • Sammet, Jean E., (1967) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1967"
          in (1967) Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967
  • Albany, A. E. J. (1969) Albany, A. E. J. "FORDESK IV - The Design and Implementation of a FORTRAN IV Interpreter" Abstract Extract: COMPARISONS WITH BASIC AND AID
          in [Proceedings] (1969) Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Computer Conference Adelaide, South Australia, 1969
  • Rice, John K. and Rice, John R. (1969) Rice, John K. and Rice, John R. "Introduction to computer science" New York Holt, Rinehart & Winston 1969
          in [Proceedings] (1969) Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Computer Conference Adelaide, South Australia, 1969
  • (1971) "Kemeny and Kurz: Dartmouth's Time-Sharing System Captures College, Creates Confidence" Computers and Automation Feb 15 1971 Extract: Interview
          in [Proceedings] (1969) Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Computer Conference Adelaide, South Australia, 1969
  • Barron (1971) Barron, DW "Approaches to conversation FORTRAN" pp123-127 Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: City Conversational FORTRAN
          in (1971) The Computer Journal 14(1) 1971
  • Stock (1971) Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 37 Abstract
          in (1971) The Computer Journal 14(1) 1971
  • Lee, J.A.N. (1972) Lee, J.A.N. "The formal definition of the BASIC language" Abstract
          in (1972) The Computer Journal 15(1) February 1972
  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 33
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1973) Sammet, Jean E. "Roster of Programming Languages for 1973" p147
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 83 Abstract
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
  • Hager, Oberita (1975) Hager, Oberita "An Evaluation of the Data Processing Program at Eastern Kentucky University"
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
  • Kurz, T.E. (1978) Kurz, T.E. "BASIC"
          in [HOPL I] (1979) SIGPLAN Notices 14(04) April 1979 including The first ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages (HOPL) Los Angeles, CA, June 1-3, 1978
  • Lewis, T.G. (1978) Lewis, T.G. "BASIC language summary"
          in [HOPL I] (1979) SIGPLAN Notices 14(04) April 1979 including The first ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages (HOPL) Los Angeles, CA, June 1-3, 1978
  • Sammet, Jean E (1978) Sammet, Jean E "Roster of programming languages for 1976-77" pp56-85
          in [SIGPLAN] (1978) SIGPLAN Notices 13(11) Nov 1978
  • Allen, F. (1982) Allen, F. and Schwartz, J. review of Sammet and Lee HOPL conference end banquet excerpts Abstract
          in (1982) ACM Computing Reviews March 1982
  • Steel, T. (1982) Steel, T. B. review of Wexelblat 1982 Abstract
          in (1982) ACM Computing Reviews March 1982
  • Tee, C. (1982) Tee, C. J. review of Kurtz 1978 Abstract
          in (1982) ACM Computing Reviews March 1982
  • Van Deusen, M. (1982) Van Deusen, M. review of Wexelblat 1982 Abstract
          in (1982) ACM Computing Reviews March 1982
  • Kemeny, John G. and Kurtz, Thomas E. (1984) Kemeny, John G. and Kurtz, Thomas E. "Bringing up BASIC"

    Internal error

    LETVAR\\\: Invalid procedure call or argument 5 ProtiumLPNDB at  Checking wild card

          in Ditlea, Steve (ed) (1984) Ditlea, Steve (ed) "Digital Deli: The Comprehensive, User-Lovable Menu of Computer Lore, Culture, Lifestyles and Fancy by The Lunch Group & Guests" Workman Publishers: New York, 1984.
  • (1985) Kemeny, John G., Kurtz, Thomas E., Back to BASIC, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading MA, 1985.
          in Ditlea, Steve (ed) (1984) Ditlea, Steve (ed) "Digital Deli: The Comprehensive, User-Lovable Menu of Computer Lore, Culture, Lifestyles and Fancy by The Lunch Group & Guests" Workman Publishers: New York, 1984.
  • (2002) Library of Congress Subject Headings B3
          in Ditlea, Steve (ed) (1984) Ditlea, Steve (ed) "Digital Deli: The Comprehensive, User-Lovable Menu of Computer Lore, Culture, Lifestyles and Fancy by The Lunch Group & Guests" Workman Publishers: New York, 1984.
    Resources
    • List
    • From the BASIC article in Digital Deli

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