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Language peer sets for UNCOL:
United States
United States/1958
Designed 1958
1950s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Intermediate languages and VMs
Intermediate languages and VMs
Fixed operation
Intermediate languages and VMs/1958
Fixed operation/1958
Intermediate languages and VMs/United States
Fixed operation/United States
Operation-oriented/United States


Proposed universal intermediate language 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1958
Published: 1958
Genus: Intermediate languages and VMs
Sammet category: Multi-purpose

UNiversal Computer Oriented Language.

A universal intermediate language, much discussed but never implemented.

Most of the justifications for JAVA, with the nice comment:
"This concept is not particularly new or original. It has been discussed by many independent persons as long ago as 1954. It might not be difficult to prove that this was well-known to Babbage, so no effort has been made to give credit to the originator, if indeed there was a unique originator"

Interestingly the Orchard-Hays paper suggests that it is the wrong way to go, for reasons that are similarily contemperaneous

Related languages
Gorn experimental compiler UNCOL   Influence
UNCOL ACT   Reaction to
UNCOL ANDF   Influence
UNCOL BASE   Implementation of
UNCOL HPCode-Plus   Influence
UNCOL Janus   Implementation
UNCOL Metcalfe syntax language   compiler for
UNCOL Wegstein algebraic language   Antipathy to

  • Conway, Melvin E. (1958) Conway, Melvin E. "Proposal for an UNCOL" Abstract
          in [ACM] (1958) [ACM] CACM 1(10) (Oct 1958)
  • Strong, J.; J. Wegstein , A. Tritter , J. Olsztyn (1958) Strong, J.; J. Wegstein , A. Tritter , J. Olsztyn , O. Mock , T. Steel, "The problem of programming communication with changing machines: a proposed solution" Extract: Introduction
          in [ACM] (1958) [ACM] CACM 1(08) (Aug 1958)
  • Delavenay, Emile (1960) Delavenay, Emile "An introduction to machine translation" Frederick A. Praeger, New York, N. Y., 1960
          in [ACM] (1958) [ACM] CACM 1(08) (Aug 1958)
  • (1960) Kogon, Rainer review of Delavenay 1960 Abstract
          in (1961) ACM Computing Reviews 2(05) September-October 1961
  • Orchard-Hays, William (1960) Orchard-Hays, William "A New Approach to the Programming Problem"
          in [JCC 17] (1960) [JCC 17] Proceedings of the 1960 Western Joint Computer Conference, May 1960
  • Steel, T. B. (1960) Steel, T. B. "UNCOL" pp18-20
          in (1960) Datamation 6(01) January 1960
  • Block, I. (1961) Block, I. E. review of Steel 1960 Abstract
          in (1961) ACM Computing Reviews 2(03) May-June 1961
  • Bratman (1961) Bratman, H. "An alternate form of the "UNCOL diagram"
          in [ACM] (1961) [ACM] CACM 4(03) (March 1961)
  • Dobrusky and Steel (1961) Dobrusky, W. B. and Steel, T. B. "Universal computer-oriented language" Abstract DOI
          in [ACM] (1961) [ACM] CACM 4(03) (March 1961)
  • Sammet, Jean E (1961) Sammet, Jean E "1960 Tower of Babel" diagram on the front of CACM January 1961 Picture: Cover of ACM Communications December 1961
          in [ACM] (1961) [ACM] CACM 4(01) (Jan 1961)
  • Steel (1961) Steel, T. B. Jr "UNCOL, the Myth And the Fact" pp325-350
          in Goodman (ed) (1961) Goodman, Richard (ed) "Annual Review in Automatic Programming" (2) 1961 Pergamon Press, Oxford
  • Steel, T. B., Jr. (1961) Steel, T. B., Jr. "A first version of UNCOL" pp371-378
          in [JCC 19] (1961) [JCC 19] Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, May 1961
  • Zaphyr, P. (1961) Zaphyr, P. A. review of Bratman, H 1961 Abstract
          in (1961) ACM Computing Reviews 2(05) September-October 1961
  • Arden, B. (1962) Arden, B. W. review of Steel WJCC 1961 Abstract
          in (1962) ACM Computing Reviews 3(04) July-August 1962
  • Bagley, Philip R. (1962) Bagley, Philip R. "Principles and Problems of a Universal Computer-Oriented Language" pp305-312 Abstract
          in (1962) The Computer Journal 4(4) January 1962
  • Barron (1962) Barron, D. W. review of Goodman, Richard (ed) "Annual Review in Automatic Programming", Vol. 2 Abstract Extract: UNCOL
          in [Computer Bulletin] (1962) The Computer Bulletin June 1962
  • Chorafas, D. (1962) Chorafas, D. N.: Programming systems for Electronic computer London: Butterworth 1962. XVI,187 S
          in [Computer Bulletin] (1962) The Computer Bulletin June 1962
  • Leavenworth, B. (1962) Leavenworth, B. M. review of Bagley 1962 (UNCOL) Abstract
          in [ACM] (1963) ACM Computing Reviews 4(01) January-February, 1963
  • Ingerman, Peter Zilahy (1966) Ingerman, Peter Zilahy "The parameterization of the translation process" pp221-239
          in Steel, T. (1966) Steel, T. B. Jr. (ed.): Formal lanquage descripttion languages for computer programming. Amsterdam: North Holland 1966
  • Feldman, Jerome and Gries, David (1968) Feldman, Jerome and Gries, David "Translator writing systems" p77-113 Abstract Extract: Gargoyle, TWS, AMOS
          in [ACM] (1968) [ACM] CACM 11(02) (February 1968)
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.708.
          in [ACM] (1968) [ACM] CACM 11(02) (February 1968)
  • Sammet, Jean E., (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Programming languages: history and future"
          in [ACM] (1972) [ACM] CACM 15(06) (June 1972)
  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 293
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
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