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Language peer sets for BNF:
United States
United States/1959
Designed 1959
1950s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Grammar and Syntax-oriented
Specialised Languages
Grammar and Syntax-oriented
Grammar and Syntax-oriented/1959
Grammar and Syntax-oriented/United States
Language-related/United States
Content-reflexive/United States
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1959
Specialised Languages/us


Backus Naur Form 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1959
Genus: Grammar and Syntax-oriented
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

Backus Normal Form, later renamed Backus-Naur Form at the suggestion of Donald Knuth. A formalism to express the productions of context-free grammars. First used in the specification of Algol-58.

Related languages
Post production BNF   Influence
BNF ALGOL 60   Spec written in
BNF DCG   Variant
BNF EBNF   Evolution of
BNF Ingerman generalised BNF   Extension of

  • Backus, J. W. (1959) Backus, J. W. "The syntax and semantics of the proposed international algebraic language of the Zurich ACM-GAMM conference"
          in Proc. (1959) Proc. Int. Conf. Information Processing, Oldenbourg, München, 1960
  • Ingerman, P. Z. (1959) Ingerman, P. Z. "A new algorithm for algebraic translation" Extract: Rationale and description of system
          in (1959) SESSION: Automatic programming: algorithm translators
  • Cantor, D. G. (1962) Cantor, D. G. "On the ambiguity problem of Backus Systems" DOI Abstract
          in [ACM] (1962) [ACM] JACM 9(1) January 1962
  • Donald Knuth and Saul Gorn: letters regarding (1962) Donald Knuth and Saul Gorn: letters regarding "Backus' language" p185
          in [ACM] (1962) [ACM] CACM 5(04) April 1962
  • Ingerman, Peter Zilahy (1962) Ingerman, Peter Zilahy "A translation technique for languages whose syntax is expressible in extended Backus Normal Form"
          in (1962) Symbolic Languages in Data Processing, in the Proceedings of the Symposium organized and edited by the International Computation Centre, Rome, Italy, March 26­31, 1962, Gordon and Beech Science Publishers, 1962.
  • R. M. Shapiro (1962) R. M. Shapiro "Computers, connector systems, and data descriptions" pp72-73
          in (1962) Artificial languages
  • Ingerman, Peter Zilahy: (1963) Ingerman, Peter Zilahy: "A syntax-oriented compiler for languages whose syntax is expressible in Backus Normal Form and some proposed extensions thereto" Master's Thesis. Philadelphia, Pa. Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania 1963.
          in (1962) Artificial languages
  • Knuth, D. E. (1964) Knuth, D. E. "Backus Normal Form vs Backus Naur Form"
          in [ACM] (1964) [ACM] CACM 7(06) June 1964
  • London, R. L. (1964) London, R. L. "A computer program for discovering and proving recognition rules for Backus Normal Form grammars"
          in (1964) Proceedings of the 19th ACM national conference January 1964
  • Earley, J. C. (1965) Earley, J. C. "Generating a recognizer for a BNF grammar" Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie-Mellon University 1965. Computation Center Report.
          in (1964) Proceedings of the 19th ACM national conference January 1964
  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 40
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 95 Abstract
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Ledgard, Henry F (1974) Ledgard, Henry F "Production Systems or Can We Do Better than BNF?"
          in [ACM] (1974) [ACM] CACM 17(02) (Feb 1974)
  • Mäenpää, Petri (1996) Mäenpää, Petri "Semantical BNF"
          in (1996) TYPES 1996
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