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Language peer sets for Amber:
United States
United States/1984
Designed 1984
1980s languages
Fourth generation
Late Cold War


ML with CSP-like concurrency  

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1984
Published: 1984

Adds CSP-like concurrency to ML. Similar to Galileo.

Concurrency, multiple inheritance, persistence. Programs must be written in two type faces, roman and italics! Both static and dynamic types. Implementation for Mac. a functional language which adds CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes) like concurrency, multiple inheritance and pesistence to ML and generalizes it's type system. It is similar to Galileo. Programs must be written in two type faces, roman and italics. It has both static types and dynamic types.

"Amber uses roman face for type and value identifiers, and italics for labels. This is not merely convention but is semantically significant. The assumption is made that the language will be used on machines with bitmap graphics and a what-you-see-is-what-you-get editor."

Related languages
CSP Amber   Influence
Galileo Amber   Based on
SML Amber   Extension of
Amber OOPS+   partial disapproval partial Influence

  • Cardelli, Luca (1984) Cardelli, Luca "Amber" Technical Memorandum TM 11271-840924-10, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1984.
  • Buneman, Peter and Atkinson, Malcolm (1986) Buneman, Peter and Atkinson, Malcolm "Inheritance and persistence in database programming languages"
          in [ACM] (1986) Proceedings of the 1986 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of Data, Washington
  • Cardelli, Luca (1986) Cardelli, Luca "Amber"
          in Proc. (1986) Proc. of the thirteenth spring school of the LITP on Combinators and functional programming languages 1986 Val d'Ajol, France
  • Cardelli, Luca (1986) Cardelli, Luca "The Amber Machine" pp 48-70
          in Cousineau, Guy; Pierre-Louis Curien, and Bernard R (1986) Cousineau, Guy; Pierre-Louis Curien, and Bernard Robinet, editors, Combinators and Functional Programming Languages, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 242, Springer-Verlag, 1986
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