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Language peer sets for OZ:
Designed 1993
1990s languages
Fifth generation
Post-Cold War
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1993
Specialised Languages/de


Concurrent constraint language 

alternate simple view
Country: Germany
Designed 1993
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

high-level language, combining constraint inference with concurrency. Dynamically typed and has first-class procedures, classes, objects, exceptions, and sequential threads synchronizing over a constraint store. Supports finite domain and feature constraints and has powerful primitives for programming constraint inference engines at a high level. Typical application areas of OZ include: optimization problems like scheduling, time tabling, placement and configuration, reasoning and knowledge representation, processing of natural language, simulation, multi-agent systems, and sophisticated GUIs.  

U Saarbrucken. Object-oriented concurrent constraint language. Based on constraint communication, a new form of asynchronous communication using logic variables. Partial information about the values of variables is imposed concurrently and incrementally. Supports higher order programming and object-orientation including multiple inheritance.

Related languages
LIFE OZ   Influence
OZ OZ2   Evolution of

  • Henz, Martin; Smolka, Gert; Würtz, Jörg (1993) Henz, Martin; Smolka, Gert; Würtz, Jörg "Oz - A Programming Language for Multi-Agent Systems" pp404-409
          in Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Confer (1993) Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Chambéry, France, August 28 -September 3, 1993. (IJCAI) Ruzena Bajcsy (Ed.) Morgan Kaufmann, 1993
  • Smolka, G. et al. (1993) Smolka, G. et al. "Object-Oriented Concurrent Constraint Programming in Oz"
          in Otthein Herzog, Thomas Christaller, Dieter Schütt (1993) Otthein Herzog, Thomas Christaller, Dieter Schütt (Eds.): Grundlagen und Anwendungen der Künstlichen Intelligenz, 17. Fachtagung für Künstliche Intelligenz, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 13.-16. September 1993, Proceedings. Informatik Aktuell Springer 1993
  • Smolka, Gert (1993) Smolka, Gert "Nebenläfige Objekte und Logische Programmierung"
          in Christoph Beierle (Ed.): 9. (1993) Christoph Beierle (Ed.): 9. Workshop Logische Programmierung, Oktober 1993, Proceedings. Fern-Universität Hagen, Informatik-Bericht 146
  • Smolka, Gert (1994) Smolka, Gert "The Definition of Kernel Oz" pp251-292
          in (1994) Constraint Programming 1994
  • Smolka, Gert (1995) Smolka, Gert "Oz: Concurrent Constraint Programming for Real"
          in Sterling, Leon (Ed.): Logic Programming, Proceedi (1995) Sterling, Leon (Ed.): Logic Programming, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Logic Programming, June 13-16, 1995, Tokyo, Japan. MIT Press 1995
  • Smolka, Gert (1995) Smolka, Gert "The Oz Programming Model" pp324-343
          in (1995) Computer Science Today 1995
  • Müller, Martin; Smolka, Gert (1996) Müller, Martin; Smolka, Gert "Oz: nebenläufige Programmierung mit Constraints"
          in (1996) KI 10(3) (1996)
  • Smolka, Gert (1996) Smolka, Gert "Constraints in OZ"
          in [ACM] (1996) [ACM] ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 28(4) December 1996
  • Smolka, Gert (1996) Smolka, Gert "The Oz Programming Language and System" p377
          in (1996) ASIAN 1996
  • Smolka, Gert (1996) Smolka, Gert "The Oz Programming Model" p251
          in (1996) JELIA 1996
  • Philippsen, Michael (2000) Philippsen, Michael "A survey of concurrent object-oriented languages" pp917-980
          in (2000) Concurrency: Practice and Experience 2000 v12
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