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Language peer sets for EPL:
United States
United States/1966
Designed 1966
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus IBM PL/Is
PL/I Languages
IBM PL/Is/1966
PL/I Languages/1966
IBM PL/Is/United States
PL/I Languages/United States
Imperative/United States


Early PL/1 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1966
Published: 1966
Genus: IBM PL/Is
Sammet category: Multi-purpose

For Early PL/I. McIlroy, Morris et al. PL/I subset dialect, the first running PL/I compiler. Used by Bell Labs and MIT to write Multics, EPL had extensions to handle the segment/offset nature of Multics pointers.

Programming Language #1, invented by George Radin of IBM in 1964. Combining scientific features from FORTRAN, business features like records from COBOL, and block structuring from Algol, PL/I's future looked rosy in 1965 when the team chose it for the Multics systems programming language and the idea of coding an operating system in a "higher level language" was radical. Multics's storage models, procedure models, data types, and run-time architecture were all designed around those of the PL/I language, and all system APIs were given in PL/I. Use of any other language for systems programming tasks was actively and officially discouraged. Nonetheless, over the years certain critical subsystems of substantive complexity and bulk (notably page control and the scheduler) were recast into assembler language to optimize performance. The version 2 Multics PL/I implementation (Bob Freiburghouse and Barry Wolman, chief architects), is arguably the preeminent PL/I implementation of record. [BSG]

Related languages
PL/I EPL   Subset
TMG EPL   Written using
EPL MULTICS PL/I   Evolution of
EPL REPL   Subset

  • [MAC] (1966) "EPL Reference Manual", Project MAC, April 1966.
  • Corbató, F. J. (1969) Corbató, F. J. "PL/I As a Tool for System Programming five years with a temporary compiler" Abstract Extract: which compiler? Extract: TMG and EPL Online at Multics
          in (1969) Datamation 15(5) May 1969
  • Graham, Robert M. (1969) Graham, Robert M. "Use of High Level Languages for System Programming" MIT/LCS/TM-13 1969 Extract: Operating systems as tables
          in (1969) Datamation 15(5) May 1969
  • Rosin (1969) Rosin R F "PL/1 Implementation survey" PL/I Bulletin 7 (in ACM SIGPLAN Notices Feb 1969) Extract: Introduction
          in (1969) Datamation 15(5) May 1969
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.542.
          in (1969) Datamation 15(5) May 1969
  • (1970) Blackwell: review of Corbato 1969 Abstract
          in (1969) Datamation 15(5) May 1969
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1971) Sammet, Jean E. "Brief survey of languages used for systems implementation" Extract: EPL
          in [LSI 1971] (1971) [ACM] SIGPLAN Notices 6(10) October 1971 Proceedings of the SIGPLAN symposium on Languages for system implementation 1971, Lafayette, Indiana, United States; October, 1971
  • Freiburghouse (1998) Freiburghouse, R. A. "The Multics PL/1 Compiler" Abstract Extract: The language Extract: Design objectives Extract: SUMMARY History of Multics PL/1
          in [AFIPS] (1969) [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1969 Fall Joint Computer Conference FJCC 35
  • Skillicorn, David B. and Talia, Domenico (1998) Skillicorn, David B. and Talia, Domenico "Models and languages for parallel computation" pp123-169
          in [ACM] (1998) [ACM] ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 30(2) June 1998
  • Flass, Peter (2000) Flass, Peter "Languages Related to PL/I" in "The PL/I Language" Online copy at Peter Flass's PL/1 site
          in [ACM] (1998) [ACM] ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 30(2) June 1998
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