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Language peer sets for TRIGMAN:
United States
United States/1966
Designed 1966
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Algebraic
Algebraic/United States
Mathematical/United States
Expression-oriented/United States


celestial mathematics system 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1966
Genus: Algebraic

A system for solving problems in celestial mechanics using symbolic maths.

A preprocessor written in SNOBOL 4 created FORTRANIV output. THe terminolgy is borrowed from Weizenbaum's  SLIP, rather than SNOBOL or LISP or FLIP

From the Quasar page:

"Also in 1966, Jefferys was lured to The University of Texas at Austin by Harlan Smith, to join an astronomy department with a rapidly developing first-class faculty. At Texas, Jefferys continued exploring dynamical systems. He applied his work not only to solar system objects, but also to galactic dynamics and to the dynamical stability of star clusters. He has a philosophical attitude toward the challenge of dynamical systems.

'The most interesting problems are always the ones that are the hardest,' he said.

Jefferys also became interested in solving algebraic and calculus problems with computers. Calculations in celestial mechanics require extensive amounts of algebra. Jefferys designed a programming system, which alleviated the tedium in calculating these formulae, thus accelerating the work. This programming system, called TRIGMAN, was essentially finished by 1970. It is still used in celestial mechanics studies."


  • Jefferys, W. H. (1970) Jefferys, W. H. "TRIGMAN, A System For Algebraic Manipulation of Poisson Series", University of Texas Computation Center Report TRM-15 1970
  • Jefferys, William H. (1970) Jefferys, William H. "A Fortran-Based List Processor for Poisson Series" Celestial Mechanics 2 pp474-80, 1970 Abstract
  • Jefferys, W. H. (1971) Jefferys, W. H. "A Precompiler for the Formula Manipulation System Trigman" Celestial Mechanics, Vol. 6, p.117 Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: Declaration Statements - POLY, TRIG, SERIES Extract: Making Formula Manipulation Systems in Celestial Mechanics Easier to Use
  • Fitch (1979) Fitch, J.P. "The Application of symbolic algebra to physics: a case of creeping flow"
          in [EUROSAM 79] (1979) E.W. Ng (ed) "Symbolic & Algebraic Computation Proceedings of EUROSAM 79" Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979
  • Campbell, J. A. and Fitch, J. P. (1980) Campbell, J. A. and Fitch, J. P. "Symbolic computing with and without LISP" Proceedings of the 1980 Conference on LISP and Functional Programming Stanford University, California, United States pp1-5
          in [EUROSAM 79] (1979) E.W. Ng (ed) "Symbolic & Algebraic Computation Proceedings of EUROSAM 79" Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979
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