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Language peer sets for DOPE:
United States
United States/1962
Designed 1962
1960s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Flowcharts
Specialised Languages
2-D Graphic Languages
Graphically Spatial
2-D Graphic Languages/1962
Graphically Spatial/1962
Flowcharts/United States
2-D Graphic Languages/United States
Graphically Spatial/United States
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1962
Specialised Languages/us


Simplified HLA for student translation of flowcharts 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1962
Published: 1962
Genus: Flowcharts
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

Kemeny and Marshall Dartmouth 1962

Successor for  DARSIMCO and precursor of BASIC at Dartmouth

"Intended to a offer a smooth transition from flowcharting to computer programming on the LGP-30, it expressed typical flowchart operations as two or three operand commands.
C = A + B was written
     7 + A B C
and Z = SIN(X) was written
      10 SIN X Z

Only one arithmetic operation per line was allowed. Variables could be single letter or letter-digit combinations, a harbinger of BASIC. The letters E through H were reserved for vectors, each allowing components numbered 1 through 16. In addition to the four main arithmetic operations (+, -, -, /), the commands included four functions (SQR, EXP, LOG, SIN), a jump (T), and a three-way branch (C) - shades of FORTRAN! Loops began with Z and ended with E, and allowed only unit step sizes. Input-output commands included an input (J), input and print a label (A), print a number (P), and print a new line (N).

Though not a success in itself, DOPE presaged BASIC. DOPE provided default vectors, default printing formats, and general input formats. Line numbers doubled as jummp targets. Uppercase letters and lowercase letters could be used interchangeably." (Kurz 1978)

Related languages
DOPE BASIC   Influence

  • Kurz, T.E. (1978) Kurz, T.E. "BASIC"
          in [HOPL I] (1979) SIGPLAN Notices 14(04) April 1979 including The first ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages (HOPL) Los Angeles, CA, June 1-3, 1978
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