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Language peer sets for ALGY:
United States
United States/1961
Designed 1961
1960s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Algebraic
Numerical Scientific
Algebraic
Mathematical
Expression-oriented
Algebraic/1961
Mathematical/1961
Expression-oriented/1961
Algebraic/United States
Mathematical/United States
Expression-oriented/United States
Numerical Scientific
Numerical Scientific/1961
Numerical Scientific/us

# ALGY(ID:363/alg053)

## Formula manipulation language

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1961
Published: 1961
Genus: Algebraic
Sammet category: Numerical Scientific

A system to manipulate expressions; Early language for symbolic maths.

from Sammet:
"The earliest attempt at a reasonably general system found by me was ALGY, developed by Bernick, Collender, and Sanford [BM61] prior to 196l. It was an interpretive routine for the Philco 2000. It allowed expressions written in a notation similar to FORTRAN as input, except that the \$ was used instead of the ** for exponentiation.
The following commands were available:

EQUAT INQT BUGG

Record on tape an expression and its name. Rename an expression already on tape. Search the tape for name that is to be "bugged" and delete it. OPEN Remove parentheses from an algebraic expression; it performs the necessary algebraic multiplication, groups identical terms, and sorts them in quasi-alphabetical manner. SBST Substitutes one or more expressions in a given expression. FCTR Factor a given expression with respect to a single variable or powers of a single variable. TRGA Expand a product of sine and cosine functions to a sum of sine and cosine functions of multiple angles. DONE Control word for permitting several independent problems to be processed during the same run. Notice that there is no arithmetic defined, nor is there any facility for loop control or control transfers.

Although ALGY apparently never received too much usage or publicity, I consider it a major contribution to the field because it was the first system to try to provide multiple capabilities on a general class of expressions all in one system. In fact, for some ideas, ALGY was a conceptual forerunner to FORMAC."

Hardware:

References:
• Bernick, M. D., Callender, E. D., Sanford, J. R. (1961) Bernick, M. D., Callender, E. D., Sanford, J. R. "ALGY-an algebraic manipulation program", pp. 389-392 Extract: ALGY
in [JCC 19] (1961) [JCC 19] Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, May 1961
• Brown, J. (1962) Brown, J. H. review of Bernick 1961 Abstract
in (1962) ACM Computing Reviews 3(04) July-August 1962
• Sammet, Jean E. (1966) Sammet, Jean E. "Survey of formula manipulation"
in [ACM] (1966) [ACM] CACM 9(08) August 1966
• Sammet, Jean E. (1967) Sammet, Jean E. "Formula Manipulation by Computer" Extract: ALGY
in Advances in Computers, Vol. (1967) Advances in Computers, Vol. 8 FL Alt and M Rubinoff (Eds.), Academic Press, New York, 1967
• Sammet, Jean E. (1968) Sammet, Jean E. "Revised Annotated Descriptor Based Bibliography for the Use of Computers for Non-Numerical Mathematics"
in Bobrow, D. G. (ed) (1968) Bobrow, D. G. (ed) "Symbol Manipulation Languages and Techniques", Proceedings of the IFIP Working Conference on Symbol Manipulation Languages. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1968
• Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.520. Extract: Algy
in Bobrow, D. G. (ed) (1968) Bobrow, D. G. (ed) "Symbol Manipulation Languages and Techniques", Proceedings of the IFIP Working Conference on Symbol Manipulation Languages. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1968
• Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 26 Abstract
in Bobrow, D. G. (ed) (1968) Bobrow, D. G. (ed) "Symbol Manipulation Languages and Techniques", Proceedings of the IFIP Working Conference on Symbol Manipulation Languages. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1968
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