H ? « »

Language peer sets for CITRAN:
United States
United States/1969
Designed 1969
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Generation of JOSS I
Generation of JOSS I
JOSS family
Generation of JOSS I/1969
JOSS family/1969
Generation of JOSS I/United States
JOSS family/United States
Conversational/United States


Caltech JOSS 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1969
Published: 1969
Genus: Generation of JOSS I
Sammet category: On-Line

for California Institute of Technology + RAN (after FORTRAN)

Interactive conversational programming system

Designed for and used as an introductory programming language at Caltech.

Modelled on JOSS, Written in REL (Rapidly Extensible Language)

Related languages
JOSS CITRAN   Derivation of
REL CITRAN   Written using
CITRAN QX   Based on
CITRAN UNCL   Based on

  • Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.217.
  • Thompson, F. B., P. C. Lockemann , B. Dostert , R (1969) Thompson, F. B., P. C. Lockemann , B. Dostert , R. S. Deverill "REL: A Rapidly Extensible Language system" Abstract Extract: What is REL? Extract: Extract: REL English
          in (1969) Proceedings of the twenty-fourth ACM national conference August 1969
  • Copeland, Jeffrey & Haemer, Copeland (1999) Copeland, Jeffrey & Haemer, Copeland "Work: Babelfish" Server/Workstation Expert, October 1999 Online copy Extract:
          in (1969) Proceedings of the twenty-fourth ACM national conference August 1969
    • David Bryant - What makes you think you're a computer programmer
      I've been programming computers since
        1969. That's the year I started attending college at CalTech in Pasadena, California.

      We actually had an online
        system in those days! The terminals were IBM 1052s -- basically, Selectric
        typewriters hooked up like teletype machines. I think the computing center
        was running a couple of IBM 360/65s. I'm not certain ... I was just a lowly
        freshman, and I didn't have access to the sanctum sanctorum in the computing
        center. That was for grad students.

      Anyway, the language we used was
        called CITRAN. It was a takeoff on FORTRAN, the Formula Translator,
        but since it had been developed at the California Institute of Technology,
        or CIT, it needed its own acronym. It was a time-sharing system. You
        entered commands, and program statements, from the typewriter. When
        your program was saved in the library, you said RUN and the system
        compiled your code, linked it, and executed it. If you had a bug, you got a
        not very helpful diagnostic message and BETTER LUCK NEXT TIME!
        CITRAN. If you wanted to print an entire program listing, with a
        cross-reference table for all the symbols, it might take 30 minutes, or longer.
        Connect time was limited, so people kept their programs simple and

    Search in: Google  Google scholar  World Cat  Yahoo  Overture  DBLP  Monash bib  NZ  IEEE  ACM portal  CiteSeer  CSB  ncstrl  jstor  Bookfinder