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Language peer sets for ESI:
United States
United States/1966
Designed 1966
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Generation of JOSS I
Generation of JOSS I
JOSS family
Generation of JOSS I/1966
JOSS family/1966
Generation of JOSS I/United States
JOSS family/United States
Conversational/United States


Engineering and Scientific Interpreter  

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1966
Published: 1966
Genus: Generation of JOSS I
Sammet category: On-Line

for 8/s Interpreter and then later for Engineering and Scientific Interpreter (but also to sound like "easy")

Dave Waks 1966

Dialect of JOSS for the PDP-8/s

Related languages
JOSS ESI   Extension of
ESI ESIX   Extension of


  • Waks, David J. (1966) Waks, David J. "ESI - Conversational-Mode Computing On The PDP-8/S" Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: Time-Sharing as a Solution Extract: An Alternate Solution Extract: A Description of ESI Extract: Permissible forms
          in (1966) Decus Conference Fall 1966
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.217.
          in (1966) Decus Conference Fall 1966
    • esix documentation
      "Digital's announcement in August of 1966 of the PDP-8/s-- the first computer which
      sold for "less than ten thousand dollars" (it cost $9,995) -- was what
      stimulated me to write ESI. (The price list is dated 8/1/66; my design
      notes start on 8/3.)  The thought was that a newbie could buy a real
      computer at what seemed like a very reasonable price, but what could they
      do with it?  ESI (originally the "Eight S interpreter") was the answer...
      Many of the key concepts came from the Johnniac Open Shop System (JOSS)
      developed at the Rand Corporation - what I believe was actually the first
      interactive computer system as we would define it today.  I had seen a
      talk on JOSS by its developer (Cliff Shaw?) at a computer conference
      (FJCC 64 in SFO?), and was so taken by it that I travelled to Santa
      Monica to meet with the author and get my hands on the system.  (I think
      also in the Fall of 64).  I really wanted to create my own version of
      JOSS, and the 8/S looked like the right target.  (btw, I'm pretty sure
      that John Kemeny of Dartmouth also saw Shaw's talk, and he want back to
      Dartmouth and wrote BASIC.)"

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