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Language peer sets for FOCAL:
United States
United States/1968
Designed 1968
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Generation of JOSS I
On-Line
Generation of JOSS I
JOSS family
Conversational
Generation of JOSS I/1968
JOSS family/1968
Conversational/1968
Generation of JOSS I/United States
JOSS family/United States
Conversational/United States
On-Line
On-Line/1968
On-Line/us

FOCAL(ID:406/foc001)

FOrmula CALculator. - JOSS family 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1968
Published: 1969
Genus: Generation of JOSS I
Sammet category: On-Line


for FOrmula CALculator.

Rick Merrill, DEC, 1969. Interactive, for PDP-5/PDP-8's, a descendant of AID/JOSS. ESIX documentation claims direct competition from DEC kills ESIX as a commercial product




Related languages
AID FOCAL   Evolution of
ESIX FOCAL   Influence
FOCAL CAN   Dialect of
FOCAL FOCAL/F   Evolution of
FOCAL FOCAL-11   Evolution of
FOCAL FOCAL-69   Evolution of
FOCAL NODAL   Augmentation of

References:
  • Mefcalfe, Robert M. (1968) Mefcalfe, Robert M. "PROJECT ASC: Research and Development in the Application of Small Computers - Report of Progress and Findings April 26, 1968" Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1968 Abstract Extract: Preliminary Hypothesis and Goal Extract: The Computer Facility Extract: Comments On The Programming Language: Focal
  • Stock (1971) Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 101 Abstract
  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 101
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 236 Abstract
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Fulton, David L. and Thomas, Richard T. (1976) Fulton, David L. and Thomas, Richard T. "ABACUS/X an incremental compiler for minicomputer use" pp119-124 Extract: THE ABACUS/X LANGUAGE Extract: INTRODUCTION
          in [SIGPLAN] (1976) SIGPLAN Notices 11(05) (May 1976)
  • Gorman, W. and M. Broussard (1976) Gorman, W. and M. Broussard "Minicomputer programming languages."
          in [SIGPLAN] (1976) SIGPLAN Notices 11(04) April 1976
  • Ahl David (1987) Ahl David "The Beginnings of Computer Games" Keynote address at The Computer Museum's Computer Games Weekend, November 6-8, 1987
          in [SIGPLAN] (1976) SIGPLAN Notices 11(04) April 1976
  • The Computer Museum Report 22 Spring 1988 Ahl (1988) The Computer Museum Report 22 Spring 1988 Ahl David "The Beginnings of Computer Games" Online at Ed THelen's Site Extract: FOCAL vs BASIC
          in [SIGPLAN] (1976) SIGPLAN Notices 11(04) April 1976
  • Hechler, L.; Huebner, H.; Krause, U. (1989) Hechler, L.; Huebner, H.; Krause, U. "The NODAL Interpreter at GSI" GSI, Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH 23 Feb 1989 Extract: History Extract: Characteristics of NODAL pdf
          in [SIGPLAN] (1976) SIGPLAN Notices 11(04) April 1976
    Resources
    • Interpreter
    • BNF Grammar: Grammar
    • do with v from i through e by 1. for v=i,e,s; do with v from i through e by s. NB. v can be subscripted (v(i)). goto unconditional jump. goto LNUM jump to the specified line. goto jump to the beginning of the program. if conditonal. if e LNUM_NEG ; CMD if (e < 0) goto LNUM_NEG else CMD. if e LNUM_NEG, LNUM_ZERO ; CMD if (e < 0) goto LNUM_NEG else if (e == 0) goto LNUM_ZERO else CMD. if e LNUM_NEG, LNUM_ZERO, LNUM_POS if (e < 0) goto LNUM_NEG else if (e == 0) goto LNUM_ZERO else goto LNUM_POS. library extended command. library save save current program to . library call call(load) program from . library delete delete . library list [] list library at or . if is omitted. quit stop execution. quit exit to operating system if used in top level. return return form subroutine. retrun set assign a value to a variable. set v=expr NB. v can be subscripted (v(i)). type typeout. type e[, e]... e may be an arithmetic expression or one of the following: %IW.FW set integral precision IW and fraction precision FW. ! print newline. # print carriage return. "str" print string. write write program list. write write whole program. write LGRP write specified group. write LNUM write specified line. ');">Mini manual: Manual Card
    • PDP-8 FAQ
      Richard Merrill invented FOCAL and wrote the original (1968) and classic
      FOCAL-69 interpreters for the PDP-8.  He also did early translations of
      the interpreter to PDP-7/PDP-9 code and perhaps the earliest PDP-11
      version.  In addition, he wrote the EDIT-8 paper-tape based text editor
      based on the FOCAL built-in text editor.

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