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Language peer sets for 1.pak:
Designed 1973
1970s languages
Fourth generation
High Cold War
Genus Graph
String and List Processing
Rank 1 folded unlabelled
Rank 1 folded
Rank 1 folded unlabelled/1973
Rank 1 folded/1973
Rank 1 folded unlabelled/Canada
Rank 1 folded/Canada
String and List Processing
String and List Processing/1973
String and List Processing/ca


Goal-directed graph-pattern-matching language 

alternate simple view
Country: Canada
Designed 1973
Genus: Graph
Sammet category: String and List Processing

Badler, U of Toronto 1973

AI dialect of SNOBOL (derived via SPITBOL) with graph-pattern-matching capabilities. Draws on PLANNER, CONNIVER and QA4 for goal direction etc.

Related languages
CONNIVER 1.pak   Influence
PLANNER 1.pak   Influence
QA4 1.pak   Influence
SAIL 1.pak   Influence
SNOBOL4 1.pak   Positive Strong Influence
SPITBOL 1.pak   Based on
1.pak 2.PAK   Replacement

  • Badler, Norman et al., (1973) Badler, Norman et al., "The 1.pak Reference Manual", University of Toronto, Dept. of Computer Science Technical Report No. 55, August 1973
  • Mylopoulos, John. Norman I. Badler, L. Melli, Nick (1973) Mylopoulos, John. Norman I. Badler, L. Melli, Nick Roussopoulos: "1.pak: A SNOBOL-based programming language for artificial intelligence applications" pp691-696 Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: The Data Base Extract: Discussion
          in [Proceedings] (1973) Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI-73, Stanford, CA: Stanford University 1973
  • Cohen, Philip R. (1974) Cohen, Philip R. "An integration of two language understanding methodologies" Abstract Extract: Description Extract: Workings Extract: Description Extract: Distinctions
          in [ACM] (1974) Proceedings of the 1974 ACM Annual Conference San Diego, November, 1974
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