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Language peer sets for HAL:
United States
United States/1970
Designed 1970
1970s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Multiline
Specialised Languages
Textually spatial
Spatially algorithmic
Textually spatial/1970
Spatially algorithmic/1970
Multiline/United States
Textually spatial/United States
Spatially algorithmic/United States
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1970
Specialised Languages/us


Spaceflight language 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1970
Genus: Multiline
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

Spaceflight language at NASA, developed for the Shuttle amongst other things. According to Battin, named for computer pioneer Hal Laning, not he rogue copmuter from 2001

Had lmited 2-dimensional code capabilities

Related languages
HAL CS-4   Influence
HAL HAL/S   Evolution of

  • Miller, J.S. (1972) Miller, J.S. "Two-Dimensional Characteristics of HAL, A Language for Spaceflight Applications" Abstract
          in [TDMMC] (1972) Proceedings of the SIGPLAN symposium on Two-dimensional man-machine communication 1972 , Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1973) Sammet, Jean E. "Roster of Programming Languages for 1973" p147
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
  • (1976) The Higher Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) Working Paper on 23 exisitng programming languages
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
  • Battin (1982) Battin, R. H. "Space guidance evolution - A personal narrative" Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 5, Mar.-Apr. 1982, pp97-110 Extract: Origins of MITILAC Extract: Origin of HAL name
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974
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