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Language peer sets for DUAL:
United States
United States/1953
Designed 1953
1950s languages
First generation
Early Cold War
Genus Low-level Autocoders
Numerical Scientific
Low-level Autocoders
US historic algorithmic systems
Low-level Autocoders/1953
US historic algorithmic systems/1953
Low-level Autocoders/United States
Autocoders/United States
US historic algorithmic systems/United States
Numerical Scientific
Numerical Scientific/1953
Numerical Scientific/us


autocoder with emulated floating point 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1953
Genus: Low-level Autocoders
Sammet category: Numerical Scientific

for Dual coding ability

Schlesinger UC Los Alamos Scientific Lab 1953

Dual coding system - interpreted autocoder with emulated floating point system that also had machine language components. Based on 607 system subset that was compatible with IBM SO2, to ensure portability and security.

One of languages describe by Backus 1979 as creating a "synthetic computer"

Related languages
DUAL-607 DUAL   Written using

  • Schlesinger, S. I. (1953) Schlesinger, S. I. "Dual coding system" Los Alamos NM: Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Los Alamos Report LA 1573 1953 July Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: Description of the Dual Coding System
  • Hopper (1955) Hopper, Grace "Automatic Coding for Digital Computers" pdf Extract: Introduction
          in the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana Stat (1955) the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana State University, 16 Feb. 1955, Remington Rand, Inc. 1955
  • Bemer (1957) Bemer, R. W. "The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems" Abstract Extract: Summary Extract: IT, FORTRANSIT, SAP, SOAP, SOHIO
          in [Armour] (1957) "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium" , Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 1957
  • [Bemer] (1959) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library May 1959] Extract: Obiter Dicta
          in [ACM] (1959) [ACM] CACM 2(05) May 1959
  • Carr (1959) Carr, John W III; "Computer Programming" volume 2, chapter 2, pp115-121
          in Crabbe et al (1957) E. M. Crabbe, S. Ramo, and D. E. Wooldridge (eds.) "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959.
  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)
  • Voorhees, Edward A. (1983) Voorhees, Edward A. "Los Alamos Debugging Programs and Techniques as Used on the IBM 701" pp180-182
          in [AOHC] (1983) Annals of the History of Computing, 05(2) April-June 1983 IEEE (IBM 701 Issue)
  • Voorhees, Edward A. (1983) Voorhees, Edward A. "Recollections of the 701 at Los Alamos" pp177-178
          in [AOHC] (1983) Annals of the History of Computing, 05(2) April-June 1983 IEEE (IBM 701 Issue)
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