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Language peer sets for BIOR:
United States
United States/1955
Designed 1955
1950s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus COBOL coeval
COBOL coeval
Data processing
COBOL coeval/1955
Data processing/1955
COBOL coeval/United States
COBOLs/United States
Data processing/United States


Autocode for the UNIVAC 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1955
Published: 1955
Genus: COBOL coeval
Sammet category: Multi-purpose

for Business Input-Output Rerun

Autocode for  UNIVAC

Dr. Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr., UNIVAC

Describe by Hopper (1955) "This is the pioneer - the first of the true data-processing compilers."

Hopper (1955) type 2 - Compiling routines - system

Martin Goetz (who used it) states:
BIOR, my first lesson in computer manufacturers' promises about future software developments, was never fully completed or debugged. One user noted, "The Input-Output didn't work, and they never delivered the Rerun. The only thing they gave us was the Business."


Related languages
BIOR B-0   Evolution of
BIOR DAS   Productisation of

  • Hopper (1955) Hopper, Grace "Automatic Coding for Digital Computers" pdf Extract: Introduction
          in the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana Stat (1955) the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana State University, 16 Feb. 1955, Remington Rand, Inc. 1955
  • Bemer (1957) Bemer, R. W. "The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems" Abstract Extract: Summary Extract: IT, FORTRANSIT, SAP, SOAP, SOHIO
          in [Armour] (1957) "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium" , Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 1957
  • [Bemer] (1958) [Bemer, RW] [Addendum to the Automatic Programming Systems Chart of 1(4)] June 1958
          in [ACM] (1958) [ACM] CACM 1(06) (June 1958)
  • Bemer (1958) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library August 1958]
          in [ACM] (1958) [ACM] CACM 1(06) (June 1958)
  • [Bemer] (1959) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library May 1959] Extract: Obiter Dicta
          in [ACM] (1959) [ACM] CACM 2(05) May 1959
  • Carr (1959) Carr, John W III; "Computer Programming" volume 2, chapter 2, pp115-121
          in Crabbe et al (1957) E. M. Crabbe, S. Ramo, and D. E. Wooldridge (eds.) "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959.
  • Sammet, Jean E (1961) Sammet, Jean E "1960 Tower of Babel" diagram on the front of CACM January 1961 Picture: Cover of ACM Communications December 1961
          in [ACM] (1961) [ACM] CACM 4(01) (Jan 1961)
  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)
  • Sammet, Jean E., (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Programming languages: history and future"
          in [ACM] (1972) [ACM] CACM 15(06) (June 1972)
  • Goetz, Martin (2002) Goetz, Martin "Memoirs of a Software Pioneer: Part 1" 24(1) Jan-Mar 2002 pp43-56 Abstract Online copy Extract: BIOR
          in [ACM] (1972) [ACM] CACM 15(06) (June 1972)
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