H ? « »

Language peer sets for MDL:
United States
United States/1971
Designed 1971
1970s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Strict evaluation LISPs
Strict evaluation LISPs
Lambda caculus
Strict evaluation LISPs/1971
Lambda caculus/1971
Strict evaluation LISPs/United States
LISPs/United States
Lambda caculus/United States


LISP with data types and arrays 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1971
Published: 1971
Genus: Strict evaluation LISPs

for More Data structures than Lisp

(originally "Muddle"). C. Reeve, C. Hewitt & G. Sussman, Dynamic Modeling Group, MIT ca. 1971. Intended as a successor to Lisp, and a possible base for Planner-70. Basically LISP 1.5 with data types and arrays. Many of its features were advanced at the time (I/O, interrupt handling and coroutining), and were incorporated into later LISP dialects ("optional", "rest" and "aux" markers).

In the mid 80's there was an effort to use bytecoding to make the language portable. CLU was first implemented in MDL. Infocom wrote Zork in MDL, and used it as the basis for the ZIL interpreter.

Implementations exist for ITS, TOPS-20, BSD 4.3, Apollo Domain, SunOS and A/UX.

Singled out by Licklider as the best candidate for the "hieroglyph-embedded" superlanguage of the future

Related languages
LISP 1.5 MDL   Extension of
MDL CLU   Written using
MDL Muddle   Nickname
MDL ZIL   Written using

  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 168
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 374 Abstract
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Galley, S.W. et al (1975) Galley, S.W. et al "The MDL Programming Language", Doc SYS.11.01, Project MAC, MIT (Nov 1975). Abstract
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • Licklider, J.C.R. (1976) Licklider, J.C.R. "USER-ORIENTED INTERACTIVE COMPUTER GRAPHICS" Proceedings of the ACM/SIGGRAPH workshop on User-oriented design of interactive graphics systems Pittsburgh, PA 1976 pp89-96 Abstract Extract: Graphics Embedded in LISP and APL-Like Languages
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • (1979) Galley, S.W.; Pfister, G.: The MDL Programming Language, M.I.T., Computer Science Lab., MIT/LCS/TR-293, Cambridge, Mass., 1979
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
  • (1980) Dornbrook, M.; Blank, M.: The MDL Programming Language Primer, M.I.T., Computer Science Lab., MIT/LCS, Cambridge, Mass., 1980
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972
    Search in: Google  Google scholar  World Cat  Yahoo  Overture  DBLP  Monash bib  NZ  IEEE  ACM portal  CiteSeer  CSB  ncstrl  jstor  Bookfinder