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Language peer sets for Prolog:
France
France/1971
Designed 1971
1970s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus Horn clause
String and List Processing
Horn clause
Context-based
Data representation
Horn clause/1971
Context-based /1971
Data representation/1971
Horn clause/France
Context-based /France
Data representation/France
String and List Processing
String and List Processing/1971
String and List Processing/fr

Prolog(ID:562/pro033)

Logic programming language 

alternate simple view
Country: France
Designed 1971
Published: 1971
Genus: Horn clause
Sammet category: String and List Processing


PROgrammation en LOGique. Alain Colmerauer and Phillipe Roussel, U Aix-Marseille 1971.

Designed originally for natural-language processing. LUSH (or SLD) resolution theorem proving based on the unification algorithm. No user-defined functions, and no control structure other than the built-in depth-first search with backtracking. Consists of a rich collection of data structures, and a powerful notation for encoding end-user applications.It has logical and declarative aspects, interpretive nature, compactness, and inherent modularity. It solves problems by searching a knowledge base (or more correctly database) which would be greatly improved if several processors are made to search different parts of the database.  

Early collaboration between Marseille and R. Kowalski at U Edinburgh continued until about 1975.

First implemented 1972 in ALGOL-W.


ref: Hutchins 2001
" At Montreal, research began in 1970 on a syntactic transfer system for English-French translation. The TAUM project (Traduction Automatique de l"Université de Montréal) had two major achievements: firstly, the Q-system formalism for manipulating linguistic strings and trees (later developed as the Prolog programming language), and secondly, the Météo system for translating weather forecasts."



Places
People:
Structures:
Related languages
ALGOL W Prolog   Written using
microPLANNER Prolog   Influence
Q-system Prolog   Evolution of
Robinson Unification Logic Prolog   Incorporated some features of
Prolog Action Languages   Extension of
Prolog AdLog   Implementation
Prolog AMLOG   Extension of
Prolog ANDOR   Extension of
Prolog Aquarius Prolog   Implementation
Prolog ASTLOG   Augmentation of
Prolog BeBOP   Extension of
Prolog Beta-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog BNR Prolog   Evolution of
Prolog Cactus   Extension of
Prolog CLP   Extension of
Prolog CLP(R)   Superset
Prolog Complex-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog Concurrent Prolog   Extension of
Prolog CORAL   Derivation of
Prolog CUP   Evolution of
Prolog cu-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog DATALOG   Evolution of
Prolog DLP   Based on
Prolog d-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog ECRC-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog Edinburgh Prolog   Dialect of
Prolog EPILOG   Extension to
Prolog EPOCH   Extension of
Prolog EqL   Derivation of
Prolog ESP   Extension of
Prolog GHC   Evolution of
Prolog GNOSIS   Incorporated features of
Prolog Golog   Extension of
Prolog GraphLog   Influence
Prolog HCPRVR   Implementation
Prolog IB-Templog   Extension of
Prolog IC-Prolog   Augmentation of
Prolog InTense   Extension of
Prolog Intermission   Extension of
Prolog ISO Prolog   Standardisation
Prolog Kanji PROLOG   Augmentation of
Prolog KL0   Evolution of
Prolog KNOWLOG   Extension of
Prolog lambda-Prolog   Evolution of
Prolog LaSt   Extension of
Prolog LESK   Extension of
Prolog LM-Prolog   Implementation
Prolog LOGAL   Extension of
Prolog Logicon   Subsumed
Prolog LOGIN   Extension of
Prolog LOGLISP   Influence
Prolog LOGLisp   Extension of
Prolog LogTalk   Extension of
Prolog lolli   Extension of
Prolog LPL   Extension to
Prolog Maglog   Extension of
Prolog Marseille Prolog   Dialect of
Prolog MCPL   Influence
Prolog METALOG   Extension of
Prolog Meta-Logic Prolog   Extension of
Prolog Modal Logic Programming   Extension of
Prolog Modal Prolog   Extension of
Prolog MODEL   Influence
Prolog Modula-Prolog   Incorporated some features of
Prolog MODULOG   Incorporated some features of
Prolog Molog   Extension of
Prolog MTL   Extension of
Prolog MU-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog N-Prolog   Evolution of
Prolog ObjVProlog   Evolution of
Prolog OL(P)   Evolution of
Prolog ParaLog   Extension of
Prolog Parlog   Evolution of
Prolog Paslog   Incorporated some features of
Prolog Path Pascal   Incorporated some features of
Prolog Pathlog   Extension of
Prolog POEM   Evolution of
Prolog POPLOG   Implementation
Prolog ProBoole   Extension of
Prolog ProFIT   Extension of
Prolog Progol   Extension of
Prolog PROLIX   Extension of
Prolog Prolog/KR   Extension of
Prolog Prolog++   Extension of
Prolog Prolog-D-Linda   Evolution of
Prolog Prolog-ELF   Extension of
Prolog Prolog-Linda   Augmentation of
Prolog Prolog-Linda   Augmentation of
Prolog QLOG   Incorporates some features of
Prolog Quintec Prolog   Implementation of
Prolog R-Prolog   Extension of
Prolog Sample   Extension of
Prolog SB-Prolog   Implementation
Prolog SCOOP   Extension of
Prolog SEL   Evolution of
Prolog SetLog   Derivation of
Prolog Shared Prolog   Adaptation of
Prolog SICStus Prolog   Implementation
Prolog SOLO   Influence
Prolog Spool   Extension of
Prolog Starlog   Extension of
Prolog Temporal Prolog   Extension of
Prolog THLP   Augmentation of
Prolog Tokio   Based on
Prolog Trilogy   Incorporated some features of
Prolog Turbo Prolog   Evolution of
Prolog TyRuBa   Extension of
Prolog UNIFORM   Incorporated features of
Prolog Uranus   Extension of
Prolog Van Emden and Kowalsi extended Prolog   Generalisation of
Prolog Vienna Parallel Logic   Influence
Prolog Waterloo Core Prolog   Implementation
Prolog W-Prolog   Implementation
Prolog XSB   Extension of

References:
  • Andreka and Nemeti (1976) Andreka, H and Nemeti, I "The generalised completeness of Horn predicate-logic as a programming language" University of Edinburgh. Department of artificial intelligence. Research report 21 1976
  • Szeredi, P., (1977) Szeredi, P., "Prolog a Very High Level Language Based on Predicate Logic"
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Second Hungarian Conference on Computer Science (June, 1977)
  • Warren, David H.D., Luis M. Pereira, and Fernando (1977) Warren, David H.D., Luis M. Pereira, and Fernando C.N. Pereira, "Prolog: The Language and its Implementation Compared with LISP"
          in [AIPL 1977] (1977) SIGPLAN Notices 12(08) August 1977 "Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Programming Languages"
  • Colmerauer, A. and Roussel, P. (1978) Colmerauer, A. and Roussel, P. "The birth of Prolog"
          in [HOPL I] (1979) SIGPLAN Notices 14(04) April 1979 including The first ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages (HOPL) Los Angeles, CA, June 1-3, 1978
  • Kahn (1981) Kahn, Kenneth M. "Uniform : a language based upon unification which unifies (much of) Lisp, Prolog, and Act 1" UPMAIL. Uppsala programming methodology and artificial intelligence laboratory. Technical reports 17 Uppsala University 1981 Abstract Extract: A Language based upon Unification Extract: Unification — What it is Extract: How Unification is Augmented in Uniform Extract: Uniform and Actor Languages Extract: Uniform and Logic Programming Extract: Conclusions and Future Research
          in [HOPL I] (1979) SIGPLAN Notices 14(04) April 1979 including The first ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages (HOPL) Los Angeles, CA, June 1-3, 1978
  • Clark and McCabe (1982) Clark, K. L. and F. G. McCabe "PROLOG: a language for implementing expert systems" pp455-470
          in Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. (1982) Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. Hayes, Donald Michie, and Y-H. Pao, editors, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chicester, England, 1982.
  • Szeredi, P., (1982) Szeredi, P., "Module Concept for Prolog," Proceedings of the Prolog Programming Environments Workshop (1982)
          in Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. (1982) Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. Hayes, Donald Michie, and Y-H. Pao, editors, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chicester, England, 1982.
  • Lima, I.G. (1984) Lima, I.G. "Programming Decentralised Computers" Department of Computing Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1984 Online copy
          in Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. (1982) Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. Hayes, Donald Michie, and Y-H. Pao, editors, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chicester, England, 1982.
  • Clocksin, W.F. & C.S. Mellish, (1985) Clocksin, W.F. & C.S. Mellish, "Programming in Prolog", Springer 1985.
          in Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. (1982) Machine Intelligence 10, J.E. Hayes, Donald Michie, and Y-H. Pao, editors, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chicester, England, 1982.
  • Colmerauer, Alain (1985) Colmerauer, Alain "Prolog in 10 figures"
          in [ACM] (1985) [ACM] CACM 28(12) (Dec 1985)
  • Subrahmanyam, P.A. (1985) Subrahmanyam, P.A. "The 'Software Engineering' of Expert Systems: Is Prolog Appropriate?" Abstract
          in [ACM] (1985) [ACM] CACM 28(12) (Dec 1985)
  • Sterling, Leon and Ehud Shapiro (1986) Sterling, Leon and Ehud Shapiro "The Art of Prolog" Exercise answers in Strawberry prolog Code examples
          in [ACM] (1985) [ACM] CACM 28(12) (Dec 1985)
  • Casanova, M. A. and A. L. Furtado (1988) Casanova, M. A. and A. L. Furtado "String pattern-matching in Prolog"
          in (1988) Computer Languages 13(3-4)
  • Cohen, Jacques (1988) Cohen, Jacques "A view of the origins and development of Prolog"
          in [ACM] (1988) [ACM] CACM 31(01) (Jan 1988).
  • Norvig, Peter (1991) Norvig, Peter "Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp" Morgan Kaufmann 1991 ftpSource code
          in [ACM] (1988) [ACM] CACM 31(01) (Jan 1988).
  • Hutchins, W.John (2001) Hutchins, W.John "Machine translation over fifty years" Extract: Hutchins, W.John "Machine translation over fifty years"
          in (2001) Histoire, Epistemologie, Langage XXII(1) 2001
  • (2002) Library of Congress Subject Headings P76
          in (2001) Histoire, Epistemologie, Langage XXII(1) 2001
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