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Language peer sets for C:
United States
United States/1972
Designed 1972
1970s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus CPL, BCPL and B
CPL Algols
Generation of Algol 60
CPL, BCPL and B/1972
CPL Algols/1972
Generation of Algol 60/1972
CPL, BCPL and B/United States
CPL Algols/United States
Generation of Algol 60/United States


Unix systems programming language 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1972
Published: 1972
Genus: CPL, BCPL and B
Sammet category: Multi-purpose

Dennis Ritchie, Bell Labs, ca. 1972.
Originally a systems language for Unix on the PDP-11, briefly named NB.
Influenced by BCPL through Thompson's B.
Terse, low-level and permissive. Preprocessor. Partly due to its distribution with Unix, C became the language most widely used for software implementation.

Related languages
NB C   Evolution of
C `C   Extension of
C 2-step   Target language for
C ABCL/c+   Based on
C ANSI C   Standardisation
C ARTS/C   Extension of
C BMAC   Implementation
C C--   Evolution of
C C flat   Subset
C C with Classes   Evolution of
C C(GNU-C)   Implementation
C C//   Extension of
C C++   Evolution of
C Calico   Dialect of
C CCC   Extension of
C Cg   Extension of
C CHARM   Influence
C CHARM   Based on
C CILK   Based on
C Cint   Influence
C CINT   Interpreter for
C Cmm   Derivation of
C CO2   Evolution of
C COB   Extension of
C Concurrent C   Extension of
C Concurrent C   Extension of
C C-Scheme   Written using
C CVL   Extension of
C Cyclone   Evolution of
C DISC   Extension of
C DMeroon   Extension of
C DSP/C   Extension to
C Eiffel   Compiled to
C ic   Implementation
C LIANA   Based on
C LIL   Influence
C LIMBO   Influence
C LogC   Extension of
C LPC   Based on
C Maisie   Extension of
C Modular C   Extension of
C Objective-C   Evolution of
C PARCIL   Compiled by
C Parsec   Extension of
C PCL   Extension of
C Popcorn   Evolution of
C Python   Influence
C RC   Extension of
C SA-C   Built on
C SLIC   Augmentation of
C SLX   Based on
C Split-C   Extension of
C UC   Extension of
C V   Based on
C Vector C   Extension of

  • Ritchie, D. M. (1974) Ritchie, D. M. "C Reference Manual" Bell Laboratories internal memorandum, 1974.
  • Ritchie, D. M.; Kernighan, B. W. and Lesk, M. E. (1975) Ritchie, D. M.; Kernighan, B. W. and Lesk, M. E. "The C Programming Language" Bell Labs Comp. Sci. Tech. Rep. No. 31 October 1975
  • Kernighan, Brian & Ritchie, Dennis (1978) Kernighan, Brian & Ritchie, Dennis "The C Programming Language", P-H NJ 1978
  • Sammet, Jean E (1978) Sammet, Jean E "Roster of programming languages for 1976-77" pp56-85
          in [SIGPLAN] (1978) SIGPLAN Notices 13(11) Nov 1978
  • Ritchie, D. (1981) Ritchie, D. M. S. C. Johnson, M. E. Lesk and B. W. Kernighan; ``The C Programming Language'' Western Electric Engineer, 25, (1), pp. 14-27, %D 1981
          in [SIGPLAN] (1978) SIGPLAN Notices 13(11) Nov 1978
  • Spector, David (1982) Spector, David "Ambiguities and insecurities in Modula-2" pp43-51 Extract: Introduction
          in [SIGPLAN] (1982) SIGPLAN Notices 17(08) August 1982
  • Emery, G. (1986) Emery, G. (1986). BCPL and C. Oxford Oxfordshire ; Boston, Blackwell Scientific Publications.
          in [SIGPLAN] (1982) SIGPLAN Notices 17(08) August 1982
  • Pohl, I. and D. Edelson (1988) Pohl, I. and D. Edelson "A to Z: C language shortcomings."
          in (1988) Computer Languages 13(2)
  • Engelstad, Steve; Falck, Keith; Montgomery, Warren (1991) Engelstad, Steve; Falck, Keith; Montgomery, Warren; Neumann, Joe; Straubs, Ralph; Vandendorpe, Jim; Wilde, Mike "A Dynamic C-Based Object-Oriented System for Unix" Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: DEVELOPMENT GOALS Extract: DEVELOPMENT GOALS Extract: LANGUAGE FEATURES Extract: Summary
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
  • Stallman, R.M. (1992) Stallman, R.M. "Using and Porting GNU CC", 16 Dec 1992.
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
  • J. Fleming, (1993) J. Fleming, "The C+@ Programming Language", Dr Dobbs J, Oct 1993, pp.24-32. Abstract
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
  • Ritchie, Dennis M. (1996) Ritchie, Dennis M. "The development of the C programming language" in "History of Programming Languages", ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York (1996) ed Bergin and Gibson
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
  • Bertrand Meyer (1997) Bertrand Meyer "Object-Oriented Software Construction" 2nd ed ISE Inc Extract: Introduction online copy
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
  • (2002) Library of Congress Subject Headings C11
          in (1991) IEEE Software 8(3) May 1991
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