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Language peer sets for PLM:
United States
United States/1957
Designed 1957
1950s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Ad hoc query languages
Specialised Languages
Ad hoc query languages
Erotetic systems
Ad hoc query languages/1957
Interrogatory /1957
Erotetic systems/1957
Ad hoc query languages/United States
Interrogatory /United States
Erotetic systems/United States
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1957
Specialised Languages/us


Graphically oriented data retrieval language 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1957
Genus: Ad hoc query languages
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

for Picture Language Machine

Linguistics-based scene description system for a picture- and sequence- driven data-retrieval language deveoped at NBS in Washington

The systems were developed in tandem with special purpose hardware - computers and scanners, and the earliest reports date from 1957. The first published accounts of the successful system are from 1963, but there are interim reports from 61, 62.

  • Kirsch et al (1957) Kirsch, R. A., Ray, L. C, Cahn, L., and Urban, G. H. Experiments in processing pictorial information with a digital computer. Rep. 5713, Nat. Bur. Stand., Washington, D. C, Dec. 1957.
  • Rankin (1961) Rankin, B. K., III. A programmable grammar for a fragment of English for use in an information retrieval system. Hop. 7352, Nat. Bur. Stand., Washington, D. C, June 1961
  • Cohen (1963) Cohen, D., "Picture Processing in a Picture Language Machine," NBS Report 7885. Dept. of Commerce, Wash,, D.C.; April, 1963
  • Kirsch (1963) Kirsch, R. A. The application of automata theory to problems in information retrieval (with selected bibliography). Rep. 7882, Nat. Bur. Stand., Washington, D. C, Mar. 1963
  • Kirsch and Rankin (1963) Kirsch, R.A. and B.K. Rankin III, "Modified Simple Phrase Structure Grammars for Grammatical Induction" NBS Report 7890, Dept. of Comm, Wash., DC 1963
  • Sillars (1963) Sillars, W., "An Algorithm for Representing English Sentences in a Formal Language,"' NBS Report 7384, Department of Commerce, Wash., D.C.; April, 1963
  • Bobrow (1964) Bobrow, D.G. "Natural Language Input for a Computer Problem Solving System", Report MAC-TR-1, Project MAC, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass., June 1964 Online copy pdf ps Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: Kirsch, Cohen and Sillars
  • Kirsch (1964) Kirsch, R. "Computer Interpretation of English Text and Picture Patterns" IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, EC-l3, 4, pp. 363-367. August 1964
  • Simmons (1964) Simmons, R.F., "Answering English Questions by Computer - A Survey" SDC Report SP-1536 Santa Monica, Calif.; April, 1964
  • Londe and Simmons (1965) Londe, D L., and Simmons, R. F. "NAMER, a pattern-recognition system for generating sentences about relations between line drawings" Abstract Online copy Extract: Namer and PLM
          in [ACM] (1965) [ACM] Proceedings of the 1965 20th National Conference 1965 , Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • Simmons, R. F. (1965) Simmons, R. F. "Answering English questions by computer: a survey" p53-70 Abstract DOI Extract: PLM Extract: Namer and PLM
          in [ACM] (1965) [ACM] CACM 8(01) Jan 1965
  • [Clowes] (1966) Clowes, Max Review of "Recognition: A Study in the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence" by Kenneth M. Sayre in The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17(2) August 1966 pp165-167 Extract: The PIcture Language Machine
          in [ACM] (1965) [ACM] CACM 8(01) Jan 1965
  • Rosenfeld (1969) Rosenfeld, Azriel "Picture Processing by Computer" ACM CSUR 1(3) September 1969 Abstract Online copy Extract: Picture Description and "Picture Languages"
          in [ACM] (1965) [ACM] CACM 8(01) Jan 1965
  • Stanton (1972) Stanton, R.B. "The interpretation of graphics and graphic languages" pp144-160 Abstract
          in Nake and Rosenfeld (1972) Nake, F. and Rosenfeld, A. "Graphic Languages" Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company 1972.
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