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Language peer sets for SPEEDCODING:
United States
United States/1953
Designed 1953
1950s languages
First generation
Early Cold War
Genus Fortran I-III Coeval
Numerical Scientific
Fortran I-III Coeval
Generation of Fortran I-III
Fortran family
Fortran I-III Coeval/1953
Generation of Fortran I-III/1953
Fortran family/1953
Fortran I-III Coeval/United States
Generation of Fortran I-III/United States
Fortran family/United States
Numerical Scientific
Numerical Scientific/1953
Numerical Scientific/us

SPEEDCODING(ID:7/spe013)

Backus Autocoder  

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1953
Published: 1953
Genus: Fortran I-III Coeval
Sammet category: Numerical Scientific


also Speedcode, proto-FORTRAN

One of languages describe by Backus 1979 as creating a "synthetic computer"

Team led by John Backus 1953

Backus says:
Speedcoding took the 701, which was a fixed-point, single-address computer without index registers, and made it look like a floating-point, free-address computer with index registers. In other words, programmers no longer had to tangle with the binary code that was the true "machine" language, Most 701 programmers used speedcoding, although it exacted a price. The synthetic computer ran a lot slower because it had to do all the extra work of simulating floating-point and index registers.

Hopper (1955) type 1 - Interpretive routines - system

from the Manual

It is hardly possible to assign credit for the IBM Speedcoding System because the group in IBM which developed the system has benefited from the suggestions of so many.
Historically, the ingenious development of general-purpose systems for the IBM Card Programmed Calculator certainly  influenced the basic thinking. Once the IBM 701 was announced, scientists concerned with preparing for these machines actively considered the problem of reducing problem  preparation. Many useful and provocative ideas in this area  were discussed in Poughkeepsie, New York, during the week  of August 2628,1952, when representatives from the following organizations met to consider programming ideas: Boeing  Airplane Company, Douglas Aircraft Company (El Segundo  and Santa Monica), General Electric Company, International Business Machines Corporation, Lockheed Aircraft  Corporation, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards, US. Naval Ordnance Laboratory,  U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station (Inyokern), North American Aviation, Inc., United Aircraft Corporation, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Rand Corporation, U.S. Atomic Energy  Commission. At that meeting there were specific discussions  of systems analogous to Speedcoding.
The group at IBM which developed the Speedcoding System undertook to do so after discussing such systems  with Dr. Willard Bouricius, head of the 701 Planning Group  at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This group, under the  direction of Mr. Bengt Carlson, had completed a program  with objectives similar to those of Speedcoding.  Many discussions were held with Mr. Stuart Crossman's  group at United Aircraft, particularly with Mr. Walter Ramshaw, whose assistance was extremely helpful in organizing  and collating information and text.
Finally, appreciation is expressed to those at IBM who have been most closely associated with the Speedcoding  project since its beginning in January, 1953. These are: Mr.  John Backus, who supervised the project, Mr. Harlan L.  Herrick, Mr. Donald A. Quarles, Jr., Mr. Sherwood Skillman,  Mr. John Pulos, and Miss Lucy A. Siegel. The project was  carried out under the general direction of Mr. John Sheldon.

People at GM Allison refered to it as Ramshaw's Speed Co


People:

Hardware:
Related languages
Aiken CPC translator SPEEDCODING   Influence
SAP SPEEDCODING   Influence
SHACO SPEEDCODING   Positive Moderate Influence
Williams SPEEDCODING   Influence
SPEEDCODING FORTRAN   Evolution of
SPEEDCODING Speed Co   Productisation of
SPEEDCODING Speed Co   Adaptation of
SPEEDCODING SPEEDCODE   Alias
SPEEDCODING SPEEDCODING 3   Port of
SPEEDCODING TRANSCODE   Influence
SPEEDCODING Wolontis-Bell Interpreter   Influence

References:
  • [IBM] (1953) [IBM] IBM Speedcoding System SpeedCo 1 Extract: General introduction to SpeedCo I
  • [IBM] (1953) Speedcoding System for the Type 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines, IBM Corp., 24-6059-0 (Sept., 1953).
  • Backus, J. W. (1954) Backus, J. W. "The IBM 701 Speedcoding System" pp4 - 6 Extract: Introduction Extract: To summarize:
          in [ACM] (1954) [ACM] JACM 2(1) (Jan 1955)
  • Backus, John W., and Herrick, Harlan, Jr (1954) Backus, John W., and Herrick, Harlan, Jr "IBM 701 Speedcoding and Other Automatic Programming Systems" pp106-45
          in Symposium on Automatic Programming For Digital Com (1954) Symposium on Automatic Programming For Digital Computers, Office of Naval Research, Dept. of the Navy, Washington, D.C. PB 111 607 May 13-14 1954
  • Hopper (1955) Hopper, Grace "Automatic Coding for Digital Computers" pdf Extract: Introduction
          in the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana Stat (1955) the High Speed Computer Conference, Louisiana State University, 16 Feb. 1955, Remington Rand, Inc. 1955
  • Bemer (1957) Bemer, R. W. "The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems" Abstract Extract: Summary Extract: IT, FORTRANSIT, SAP, SOAP, SOHIO
          in [Armour] (1957) "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium" , Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 1957
  • Gorn, Saul (1957) Gorn, Saul "Standardized Programming Methods and Universal Coding" Extract: Introduction
          in [ACM] (1957) [ACM] JACM 4(3) July 1957
  • Bemer (1958) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library August 1958]
          in [ACM] (1957) [ACM] JACM 4(3) July 1957
  • Carr (1959) Carr, John W III; "Computer Programming" volume 2, chapter 2, pp115-121
          in Crabbe et al (1957) E. M. Crabbe, S. Ramo, and D. E. Wooldridge (eds.) "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959.
  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)
  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)
  • Rosen, Saul (1964) Rosen, Saul "Programming Systems and Languages: a historical Survey" (reprinted in Rosen, Saul (ed) Programming Systems & Languages. McGraw Hill, New York, 1967) Extract: Speedcode
          in [AFIPS JCC 25] (1964) [AFIPS JCC 25] Proceedings of the 1964 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 1964
  • Sammet, Jean E. (1969) Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. p.130.
          in [AFIPS JCC 25] (1964) [AFIPS JCC 25] Proceedings of the 1964 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 1964
  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 573 Abstract
          in [AFIPS JCC 25] (1964) [AFIPS JCC 25] Proceedings of the 1964 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 1964
  • Allen, F. E. (1981) Allen, F. E. "The history of language processor technology in IBM" pp535-548.
          in [IBM] (1981) IBM Journal of Research and Development, 25(5), September 1981 25th anniversary issue
  • Kerner, L.O. (1982) Kerner, L.O. review of Allen 1981 in ACM Computing Reviews September 1982 Abstract
          in [IBM] (1981) IBM Journal of Research and Development, 25(5), September 1981 25th anniversary issue
  • Ceruzzi, Paul with McDonald, Rod and Welch, Grego (1983) Ceruzzi, Paul with McDonald, Rod and Welch, Gregory "Computers: A Look at the First Generation" The Computer Museum Report, Volume 7 online at Ed Thelen's site Extract: Programming first generation machines
          in (1984) The Computer Museum Report, Volume 7, Winter/1983/84
  • (1986) "The Speedcoding Language and interpreter" 9.3 pp333-338
          in C.J. Bashe, L.R. Johnson, J.H. Palmer, and E.W. Pu (1986) C.J. Bashe, L.R. Johnson, J.H. Palmer, and E.W. Pugh "IBM's Early Computers" MIT Press, 1986 (Vol. 3 in the History of Computing series)
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