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Language peer sets for FLOP:
United States
United States/1953
Designed 1953
1950s languages
First generation
Early Cold War
Genus Intermediate languages and VMs
Excluded from Sammet
Intermediate languages and VMs
Fixed operation
Intermediate languages and VMs/1953
Fixed operation/1953
Intermediate languages and VMs/United States
Fixed operation/United States
Operation-oriented/United States
Excluded from Sammet
Excluded from Sammet/1953
Excluded from Sammet/us


Lockheed virtual machine for IBM 701 

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1953
Genus: Intermediate languages and VMs
Sammet category: Excluded from Sammet

for Floating Octal Point

Lockheed macro assembler for a virtual machine running on the IBM 701 written by Robert Bozak
Operational March 1953, simulated FP.

According to BRL 61:
"A general purpose system called FLOP, a contraction of Floating Octal Point, was developed at Lockheed by members of the Digital Computing Staff.

Flop converts the 701 into an entirely different machine, one which performs all its operations in a "floating octal" system, but also permits all the normal 701 operations to be executed in fixed binary. The floating octal operations performed by the system are add, subtract, multiply, divide (all with real or complex numbers), log8 x, 8x, sin x, sin-lx, and square root. The system also provides certain logical operations and control of the input-output devices in three number systems: binary, octal and floating decimal.

This system was developed in order to obtain a minimum of elapsed time from when a new problem first enters the department to when answers are obtainable."


  • Bemer (1957) Bemer, R. W. "The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems" Abstract Extract: Summary Extract: IT, FORTRANSIT, SAP, SOAP, SOHIO
          in [Armour] (1957) "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium" , Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 1957
  • Bemer (1958) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library August 1958]
          in [Armour] (1957) "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium" , Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 1957
  • [Bemer] (1959) [Bemer, RW] [State of ACM automatic coding library May 1959] Extract: Obiter Dicta
          in [ACM] (1959) [ACM] CACM 2(05) May 1959
  • Carr (1959) Carr, John W III; "Computer Programming" volume 2, chapter 2, pp115-121
          in Crabbe et al (1957) E. M. Crabbe, S. Ramo, and D. E. Wooldridge (eds.) "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959.
  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)
  • Amaya, Leland H. (1983) Amaya, Leland H. "The 701 Installation at Lockheed Aircraft" pp184-185 Extract: About FLOP
          in [AOHC] (1983) Annals of the History of Computing, 05(2) April-June 1983 IEEE (IBM 701 Issue)
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