H ? « »

Language peer sets for Z:
United Kingdom
United Kingdom/1980
Designed 1980
1980s languages
Fourth generation
Late Cold War


alternate simple view
Country: United Kingdom
Designed 1980
Published: 1980

Developed by the Programming Research Group (PRG) at Oxford 1970s, based on research by Jean-Raymond Abrial

Formal specification language based on Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory and first order predicate logic.

Uses many non-ASCII symbols.

Used in the IBM CICS project?

An embedding of Z in HOL available from ICL ProofPower-server@win.icl.co.uk

Related languages
Z B   Extension of
Z MooZ   Extension to
Z NP   Based on
Z Object-Z   Evolution of
Z RT-Z   Incorporated features of
Z Z++   Extension of
Z ZCCS   Incorporated some features of
Z ZERO   Extension of
Z ZEST   Extension of

  • Spivey, J. (1988) Spivey, J. M. (1988). Understanding Z : a specification language and its formal semantics. Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York, Cambridge University Press.
  • Spivey, J.M. (1988) Spivey, J.M. "Understanding Z", Cambridge U Press 1988.
  • Spivey, J. (1989) Spivey, J. M. (1989). The Z notation : a reference manual. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.
  • Diller, A. (1990) Diller, A. Z : an introduction to formal methods. Chichester England ; New York, J. Wiley 1990
  • Imperato, M. (1991) Imperato, M. An introduction to Z. Bromley, Kent 1991
  • Randell, G. (1992) Randell, G. P. (1992). Improving the translation from data flow diagrams into Z by incorporating the data dictionary. Malvern, Worcestershire, Procurement Executive Ministry of Defence RSRE.
  • Spivey, J. (1992) Spivey, J. M. (1992). The Z notation : a reference manual. New York, Prentice Hall.
  • Wordsworth, J. (1992) Wordsworth, J. B. (1992). Software development with Z : a practical approach to formal methods in software engineering. Wokingham, England ; Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
  • Barden, R., S. (1994) Barden, R., S. Stepney, et al. (1994). Z in practice. New York, Prentice Hall.
  • British Computer Society. (1994) British Computer Society. (1994). Z User Workshop : proceedings of the ... Annual Z User Meeting. London ; New York, Springer Verlag: v.
  • Diller, A. (1994) Diller, A. Z : an introduction to formal methods. Chichester, West Sussex, England ; New York, Wiley & Sons..(1994).
  • Ratcliff, B. (1994) Ratcliff, B. (1994). Introducing specification using Z : a practical case study approach. London ; New York, McGraw-Hill.
  • Sheppard, D. (1995) Sheppard, D. (1995). An introduction to formal specification with Z and VDM. London ; New York, McGraw-Hill.
  • ZUM ... (1995) ZUM ... the Z formal specification notation : proceedings. Berlin ; New York, Springer: 3 v. 1995
  • Woodcock, J. (1996) Woodcock, J. and J. Davies (1996). Using Z : specification, refinement, and proof. London ; New York, Prentice Hall.
  • Jacky, J. (1997) Jacky, J. The way of Z : practical programming with formal methods. Cambridge ; New York, NY, Cambridge University Press.(1997).
  • Bowen, J. (2000) Bowen, J. P. (2000). ZB 2000 : formal specification and development in Z and B : first International Conference of B and Z Users, York, UK, August 28-September 2, 2000 : proceedings. Berlin ; New York, Springer.
  • Derrick, J. (2001) Derrick, J. and E. Boiten (2001). Refinement in Z and Object-Z : foundations and advanced applications. London ; New York, Springer.
  • (2002) Library of Congress Subject Headings LZ2
    Search in: Google  Google scholar  World Cat  Yahoo  Overture  DBLP  Monash bib  NZ  IEEE  ACM portal  CiteSeer  CSB  ncstrl  jstor  Bookfinder