HyperTalk(ID:1328/hyp007)

scripting language for HyperCard 


Bill Atkinson and Dan Winkler. Claris 1987

A verbose semicompiled language with loose syntax and high readability. Relies on HyperCard as an object management system, development environment, and interface builder. Programs are organized into "stacks" of "cards", each of which may have "buttons" and "fields". All data storage is in zero-terminated strings in fields, local, or global variables; all data references are through "chunk expressions" of the form last item of background field "Name List" of card ID 34217'. Flow of control is event-driven and message-passgin among scripts that are attached to stack, background, card, field and button objects.


Structures:
Related languages
HyperTalk => AppleScript   Superset
HyperTalk => Eager   Written using
HyperTalk => LiveScript   Influence
HyperTalk => ScriptX   Influence
HyperTalk => SuperTalk   Superset

References:
  • "Apple Macintosh HyperCard User Guide", Apple Computer 1987. view details
  • "HyperTalk Language Reference Manual", A-W 1988. view details
  • Poole, L. (1988). HyperTalk. Redmond, WA New York, Microsoft Press ; Distributed to the book trade in the U.S. by Harper & Row. view details
  • Shafer, D. (1988). HyperTalk programming. Indianapolis, Ind., Hayden Books. view details
  • Swaine, M. (1988). Dr. Dobb's essential HyperTalk handbook. Redwood City, Calif., M&T Books. view details
  • Waite Group. (1989). The Waite Group's tricks of the HyperTalk masters. Indianapolis, Ind., Hayden Books. view details External link: Online copy
  • Waite, M., S. Prata, et al. (1989). The Waite Group's HyperTalk bible. Indianapolis, Ind., Hayden Books. view details
  • Winkler, D. and S. Kamins (1990). HyperTalk 2.0, the book. New York, Bantam Books. view details
  • Winkler, D. and S. Knaster (1990). Cooking with HyperTalk 2.0. New York, Bantam Books. view details
  • Cypher, A. (1991). EAGER: Programming Repetitive Tasks by Example. In Proceedings of CHI '91. New Orleans, LA, pp. 33--40. view details External link: CiteSeer
  • Shafer, D. (1991). The complete book of HyperTalk 2. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. view details
  • Stanley, A. E. (1992). HyperTalk & HyperText. Oxford ; Boston, Newtech. view details
  • Winkler, D., S. Kamins, et al. (1994). HyperTalk 2.2, the book. New York, Random House. view details External link: Boot contents etc online
  • Nicolosi A "Hyperstat": an educational and working tool in epidemiology. Medinfo. 1995;8 Pt 2:1697 view details Abstract: The work of a researcher in epidemiology is based on studying literature, planning studies, gathering data, analyzing data and writing results. Therefore he has need for performing, more or less, simple calculations, the need for consulting or quoting literature, the need for consulting textbooks about certain issues or procedures, and the need for looking at a specific formula. There are no programs conceived as a workstation to assist the different aspects of researcher work in an integrated fashion. A hypertextual system was developed which supports different stages of the epidemiologist's work. It combines database management, statistical analysis or planning, and literature searches. The software was developed on Apple Macintosh by using Hypercard 2.1 as a database and HyperTalk as a programming language. The program is structured in 7 "stacks" or files: Procedures; Statistical Tables; Graphs; References; Text; Formulas; Help. Each stack has its own management system with an automated Table of Contents. Stacks contain "cards" which make up the databases and carry executable programs. The programs are of four kinds: association; statistical procedure; formatting (input/output); database management. The system performs general statistical procedures, procedures applicable to epidemiological studies only (follow-up and case-control), and procedures for clinical trials. All commands are given by clicking the mouse on self-explanatory "buttons". In order to perform calculations, the user only needs to enter the data into the appropriate cells and then click on the selected procedure's button. The system has a hypertextual structure. The user can go from a procedure to other cards following the preferred order of succession and according to built-in associations. The user can access different levels of knowledge or information from any stack he is consulting or operating. From every card, the user can go to a selected procedure to perform statistical calculations, to the reference database management system, to the textbook in which all procedures and issues are discussed in detail, to the database of statistical formulas with automated table of contents, to statistical tables with automated table of contents, or to the help module. he program has a very user-friendly interface and leaves the user free to use the same format he would use on paper. The interface does not require special skills. It reflects the Macintosh philosophy of using windows, buttons and mouse. This allows the user to perform complicated calculations without losing the "feel" of data, weight alternatives, and simulations. This program shares many features in common with hypertexts. It has an underlying network database where the nodes consist of text, graphics, executable procedures, and combinations of these; the nodes in the database correspond to windows on the screen; the links between the nodes in the database are visible as "active" text or icons in the windows; the text is read by following links and opening new windows. The program is especially useful as an educational tool, directed to medical and epidemiology students. The combination of computing capabilities with a textbook and databases of formulas and literature references, makes the program versatile and attractive as a learning tool. The program is also helpful in the work done at the desk, where the researcher examines results, consults literature, explores different analytic approaches, plans new studies, or writes grant proposals or scientific articles.
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings H96 view details
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