Data Management System for IBM 7030 

for Advanced DAta Management system.

Developed at MTIRE Corp, and ran on IBM 7030 (STRETCH)

Featured syntax extention (Sibley 1980): "The ideas of [...] ADAM (1962) included the ability to define new syntax for and extensions to the accessing language."

Related languages
ETF => ADAM   Evolution of
ADAM => C-10   Evolution of
ADAM => DM-1   Influence
ADAM => LUCID   Influence

  • [MITRE] "A Description of the Internal Operations of the Adam System", MTR-216, MITRE Corp., (AD 660 581), August 1966. view details
  • [MITRE] "A user's guide to the ADAM system", MTR-268, MITRE Corp., (AD 664 332), 1966. view details
  • Conners, T. L., "ADAM--a generalized data management system," pp193-203 view details
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • [AFLC/ESD/MITRE], Advanced Data Management (ADAM) Experiments, Final Report, (AD 648 226), Feb. 1967. view details
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Clapp, J. A. A Description of the Internal Operation of the Adam System. MITRE Corporation report no. MTR-276 1967 August. view details Abstract: This report describes the organization of functions among the various routines of the Adam system. Appendix I gives the sizes of the primary routines while Appendix II describes the internal format of Adam files and dictionaries.
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Gildea, R. A., "Evaluation of ADAM an Advanced Data Management System", MITRE Corp., (AD 661 273), May, 1967. view details
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Sammet, Jean E. "Computer Languages - Principles and History" Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall 1969. IX 3.2.4 view details Extract: ADAM
    [...] A system developed at MITRE is ADAM (A generalized DAta Management system), which runs on the IBM 7030 (STRETCH) and has been operational since early 1965. As with other systems in this category, a significant part of the attention is devoted to the format of the file and the methods for updating it. From a language point of view, the most interesting aspect about ADAM is that it has a syntax-directed translator which enables the user to define other languages. The user also has available a substitution macro facility whereby he can abbreviate complex expressions. For example,{12}



    define substitutions, and the message

    SKED BOSTON CHICAGO NONSTOP would be transformed to


    ADAM is an on-line system. Its language contains common arithmetic, assignment, conditional, and control statements. A specific language for defining files exists.

          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 5 view details Abstract: 321 Programmiersprachen mit Angabe der Computer-Hersteller, auf deren Anlagen die entsprechenden Sprachen verwendet werden kennen. Register der 74 Computer-Firmen; Reihenfolge der Programmiersprachen nach der Anzahl der Herstellerfirmen, auf deren Anlagen die Sprache implementiert ist; Reihenfolge der Herstellerfirmen nach der Anzahl der verwendeten Programmiersprachen.

    [321 programming languages with indication of the computer manufacturers, on whose machinery the appropriate languages are used to know.  Register of the 74 computer companies;  Sequence of the programming languages after the number of manufacturing firms, on whose plants the language is implemented;  Sequence of the manufacturing firms after the number of used programming languages.]
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 10 view details Abstract: PREFACE  AND  INTRODUCTION
    The exact number of all the programming languages still in use, and those which are no longer used, is unknown. Zemanek calls the abundance of programming languages and their many dialects a "language Babel". When a new programming language is developed, only its name is known at first and it takes a while before publications about it appear. For some languages, the only relevant literature stays inside the individual companies; some are reported on in papers and magazines; and only a few, such as ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, and PL/1, become known to a wider public through various text- and handbooks. The situation surrounding the application of these languages in many computer centers is a similar one.

    There are differing opinions on the concept "programming languages". What is called a programming language by some may be termed a program, a processor, or a generator by others. Since there are no sharp borderlines in the field of programming languages, works were considered here which deal with machine languages, assemblers, autocoders, syntax and compilers, processors and generators, as well as with general higher programming languages.

    The bibliography contains some 2,700 titles of books, magazines and essays for around 300 programming languages. However, as shown by the "Overview of Existing Programming Languages", there are more than 300 such languages. The "Overview" lists a total of 676 programming languages, but this is certainly incomplete. One author ' has already announced the "next 700 programming languages"; it is to be hoped the many users may be spared such a great variety for reasons of compatibility. The graphic representations (illustrations 1 & 2) show the development and proportion of the most widely-used programming languages, as measured by the number of publications listed here and by the number of computer manufacturers and software firms who have implemented the language in question. The illustrations show FORTRAN to be in the lead at the present time. PL/1 is advancing rapidly, although PL/1 compilers are not yet seen very often outside of IBM.

    Some experts believe PL/1 will replace even the widely-used languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL.4) If this does occur, it will surely take some time - as shown by the chronological diagram (illustration 2) .

    It would be desirable from the user's point of view to reduce this language confusion down to the most advantageous languages. Those languages still maintained should incorporate the special facets and advantages of the otherwise superfluous languages. Obviously such demands are not in the interests of computer production firms, especially when one considers that a FORTRAN program can be executed on nearly all third-generation computers.

    The titles in this bibliography are organized alphabetically according to programming language, and within a language chronologically and again alphabetically within a given year. Preceding the first programming language in the alphabet, literature is listed on several languages, as are general papers on programming languages and on the theory of formal languages (AAA).
    As far as possible, the most of titles are based on autopsy. However, the bibliographical description of sone titles will not satisfy bibliography-documentation demands, since they are based on inaccurate information in various sources. Translation titles whose original titles could not be found through bibliographical research were not included. ' In view of the fact that nany libraries do not have the quoted papers, all magazine essays should have been listed with the volume, the year, issue number and the complete number of pages (e.g. pp. 721-783), so that interlibrary loans could take place with fast reader service. Unfortunately, these data were not always found.

    It is hoped that this bibliography will help the electronic data processing expert, and those who wish to select the appropriate programming language from the many available, to find a way through the language Babel.

    We wish to offer special thanks to Mr. Klaus G. Saur and the staff of Verlag Dokumentation for their publishing work.

    Graz / Austria, May, 1973
          in [AFIPS] Proceedings of the 1966 Spring Joint Computer Conference SJCC 28 view details
  • Fry, James P.; Sibley, Edgar H. "Evolution of Data-Base Management Systems" view details
          in [ACM] ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 8(1) March 1976 view details