Discrete simulations package 

Harry Markowitz et al, Rand Corp 19631

Implemented as a Fortran preprocessor on IBM 7090.

Large discrete simulations, influenced Simula.

Related languages
FORTRAN II => SIMSCRIPT   Extension of
SPS-II => SIMSCRIPT   Renaming
SIMSCRIPT => AUTASIM   Extension of
SIMSCRIPT => PSML   Preprocessor for
SIMSCRIPT => SIMSCRIPT I.5   Evolution of
SIMSCRIPT => Simscript N   Implementation

  • Markowitz, H., Hausner, B., and Karr, H. "SIMSCRIPT: A simulation programming language" Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962 view details
  • Markowitz, H., Hausner, B., and Karr, H. "SIMSCRIPT: A simulation programming language" RAND Mem. RM-3310-PR, RAND Corp., Santa Monica 1962 view details
  • Geisler, M. A., and Markovitz, H. M. "A brief review of SIMSCRIPT as a simulating technique" RM-3778-PR, RAND Corp., Santa Monica. view details
  • Hauser, B., and Markowitz, H.M. "Technical appendix on the SIMSCRIPT simulation programming language" RM-3813-PR, RAND Corp., Santa Monica view details
  • Markowitz, H; B. Hausner and H. Karr. "SIMSCRIPT: A Simulation Programming Language" Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1963 view details
  • Dimsdale, B., and Marlowitz, H. M. "A description of the SIMSCRIPT language" pp57-67 view details
          in IBM Systems Journal 3(1) (1964) view details
  • Krasnow, Howard S.; and Merikallio, Reino A. "The past, present, and future of general simulation languages" Mgmt. Sci. 11(2) Nov. 1964 pp236-267. view details
          in IBM Systems Journal 3(1) (1964) view details
  • Hutchinson, G. K. review of Krasnow et al 1964 view details Abstract: The wide and growing use of simulation as a system design and analysis vehicle has resulted in a proliferation of simulation languages. This article summarizes and compares various characteristics of SIMSCRIPT, CSL, GPSS, SIMPAC, and DYNAMO, five of the more commonly used languages. The languages are described individually and compared with respect to: 1) range and generality of world view; 2) flexibility and power for modifying the state of the system; 3) ease of simulation usage; 4) controlling dynamic model performance; 5) flexibility and utility of output; and 6) operational ease and efficiency. This is an excellent article well worth reading for those with interests in simulation or language development.
          in ACM Computing Reviews 6(06) November-December 1965 view details
  • Markowitz, H. M., H. Hausner, and H. W. Karr "SIMSCRIPT: A Simulation programming language" The RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, California . 1965 view details
          in ACM Computing Reviews 6(06) November-December 1965 view details
  • Lubin, John Francis and Teichroew, Daniel "Computer simulation—discussion of the technique and comparison of languages" pp723-741 view details
          in [ACM] CACM 9(10) October 1966 view details
  • Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1967" view details
          in Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967 view details
  • Gordon, Geoffrey: System simulation. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall 1969. view details
          in Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967 view details
  • Pritsker, A. Alan B.; Kiviat, Philip J.; "Simulation with GASP II: a FORTRAN based simulation language" Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall 1969. 344 S. (Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation.) view details Extract: PREFACE

    GASP II is a new simulation language and as such requires careful and complete documentation. The intent of this book is to present GASP II and to use it as a basis for understanding the concepts of simulation. As our aim was not to produce a general text, we felt no need to expound on the scientific method, although simulation is a technique which is used within the framework provided by the scientific method. Our approach is specific ? the book deals with modeling and simulation programming using a particular language. Topics which are closely related to simulation but not covered in this book are experimental design and statistical analysis and verification. The omission of these subjects permitted us to concentrate on simulation concepts and modeling using GASP II.

    GASP II is practical and useful. Being FORTRAN based, it is Relatively easy to learn. Its simulation concepts are quickly grasped Because they are presented in the familiar framework of FORTRAN. A FORTRAN listing of each GASP II subprogram is included in the book, along with detailed flow charts.

    Past experience has shown that simulation modeling is an art. We feel it is mandatory that a student perform simulations while learning to be a simulation analyst and programmer. For this reason, we have included eleven complete simulation studies dealing with queueing situations, inventory systems, network analysis, scheduling, and design. A standard format is used for each example, which includes a problem statement, objectives in solving the problem, special GASP II features illustrated by the example, procedures used in modeling and writing the GASP II program, and a discussion of the simulation reports. Since the emphasis in this book is on simulation using GASP II, the procedures section of each example is pre-sented in detail. FORTRAN listings for all system models are presented, along with a listing of input data cards. Flow charts and final output reports are presented where appropriate.

    GASP II has developed over the past five years at Arizona State University from the original GASP developed at U. S. Steel. The versions of GASP presented in this book are written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 1130 computer. All examples have been implemented within the capabilities of the IBM 1130, including the limitation of 8K words of storage (16 bits per word). GASP II has also been used extensively on the GE 225, GE 415, and CDC 3400 computers at ASU and is being used at other university, industry, and government installations.

    GASP II has been used as the basis for a course in simulation by the Industrial Engineering Faculty at A.S.U. It has been found that the basic prerequisites for the material in this book are a knowledge of FORTRAN and a familiarity with probability and statistics. The book can serve as an introduction to simulation models at the junior/senior level or can be used to present simulation as a problem-solving technique at the senior/graduate level. Both approaches have been used at A.S.U. with success.

    Many individuals have contributed to the development of GASP II. Foremost is Mr. William J. Thompson, who during the past year assisted in the conversion of GASP II to the IBM 1130 and to the running of the example problems presented in this book. An extended version of GASP II, called GASP IIA, and presented in Chapter 8, is an outgrowth of a term paper by Mr. Mark Jarvis for the previously mentioned simulation course. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Thompson and Mr. Jarvis.

          in Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967 view details
  • Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 222 view details Abstract: 321 Programmiersprachen mit Angabe der Computer-Hersteller, auf deren Anlagen die entsprechenden Sprachen verwendet werden kennen. Register der 74 Computer-Firmen; Reihenfolge der Programmiersprachen nach der Anzahl der Herstellerfirmen, auf deren Anlagen die Sprache implementiert ist; Reihenfolge der Herstellerfirmen nach der Anzahl der verwendeten Programmiersprachen.

    [321 programming languages with indication of the computer manufacturers, on whose machinery the appropriate languages are used to know.  Register of the 74 computer companies;  Sequence of the programming languages after the number of manufacturing firms, on whose plants the language is implemented;  Sequence of the manufacturing firms after the number of used programming languages.]
          in Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967 view details
  • Kay, I. M. "Digital Discrete Simulation Languages. Discussion and Inventory" view details Extract: Simscript
    Simscript, Developed by H. Markowitz, G. Hausner, and H. Karr at the RAND Corporation, Simscript is available on a wide range of computers. It was one of the original discrete-event simulation languages. Since its statements equip the user with a Fortran-like instrumentation set, Simscript requires scientific programming ability. Simscript permits broad specification of an event-oriented model, but it does not provide any automatic statistical analysis or output. However, a Report Generator provides code for specifying output without the use of input-- output statements per se. Subsequent to the RAND version, new compilers appeared for various machines under a copyrighted name, Simscript I.5.

          in Kay Ira M. and John McLeod,(Eds.), Progress in Simulation. New York: Gordon and Breach 1972 view details
  • Rosen, S. "Programming Systems and Languages 1965-1975" view details Abstract: In spite of impressive gains by PL/I, Fortran and Cobol remain the languages in which most of the world's production programs are written and will remain so into the foreseeable future. There is a great deal of theoretical interest in Algol 68 and in extensible languages, but so far at least they have had little practical impact. Problem-oriented languages may very well become the most important language development area in the next five to ten years. In the operating system area all major computer manufacturers set out to produce very ambitious multiprogramming systems, and they all ran into similar problems. A number of university projects, though not directly comparable to those of the manufacturers, have contributed greatly to a better understanding of operating system principles. Important trends include the increased interest in the development of system measurement and evaluation techniques, and increased use of microprogramming for some programming system functions. DOI
          in [ACM] CACM 15(07) (July 1972) view details
  • Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 257 view details
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Kiviat, P.J. et al, "SIMSCRIPT: A Simulation Programming Language", CACI 1973. view details
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 545 view details Abstract: PREFACE  AND  INTRODUCTION
    The exact number of all the programming languages still in use, and those which are no longer used, is unknown. Zemanek calls the abundance of programming languages and their many dialects a "language Babel". When a new programming language is developed, only its name is known at first and it takes a while before publications about it appear. For some languages, the only relevant literature stays inside the individual companies; some are reported on in papers and magazines; and only a few, such as ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, and PL/1, become known to a wider public through various text- and handbooks. The situation surrounding the application of these languages in many computer centers is a similar one.

    There are differing opinions on the concept "programming languages". What is called a programming language by some may be termed a program, a processor, or a generator by others. Since there are no sharp borderlines in the field of programming languages, works were considered here which deal with machine languages, assemblers, autocoders, syntax and compilers, processors and generators, as well as with general higher programming languages.

    The bibliography contains some 2,700 titles of books, magazines and essays for around 300 programming languages. However, as shown by the "Overview of Existing Programming Languages", there are more than 300 such languages. The "Overview" lists a total of 676 programming languages, but this is certainly incomplete. One author ' has already announced the "next 700 programming languages"; it is to be hoped the many users may be spared such a great variety for reasons of compatibility. The graphic representations (illustrations 1 & 2) show the development and proportion of the most widely-used programming languages, as measured by the number of publications listed here and by the number of computer manufacturers and software firms who have implemented the language in question. The illustrations show FORTRAN to be in the lead at the present time. PL/1 is advancing rapidly, although PL/1 compilers are not yet seen very often outside of IBM.

    Some experts believe PL/1 will replace even the widely-used languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL.4) If this does occur, it will surely take some time - as shown by the chronological diagram (illustration 2) .

    It would be desirable from the user's point of view to reduce this language confusion down to the most advantageous languages. Those languages still maintained should incorporate the special facets and advantages of the otherwise superfluous languages. Obviously such demands are not in the interests of computer production firms, especially when one considers that a FORTRAN program can be executed on nearly all third-generation computers.

    The titles in this bibliography are organized alphabetically according to programming language, and within a language chronologically and again alphabetically within a given year. Preceding the first programming language in the alphabet, literature is listed on several languages, as are general papers on programming languages and on the theory of formal languages (AAA).
    As far as possible, the most of titles are based on autopsy. However, the bibliographical description of sone titles will not satisfy bibliography-documentation demands, since they are based on inaccurate information in various sources. Translation titles whose original titles could not be found through bibliographical research were not included. ' In view of the fact that nany libraries do not have the quoted papers, all magazine essays should have been listed with the volume, the year, issue number and the complete number of pages (e.g. pp. 721-783), so that interlibrary loans could take place with fast reader service. Unfortunately, these data were not always found.

    It is hoped that this bibliography will help the electronic data processing expert, and those who wish to select the appropriate programming language from the many available, to find a way through the language Babel.

    We wish to offer special thanks to Mr. Klaus G. Saur and the staff of Verlag Dokumentation for their publishing work.

    Graz / Austria, May, 1973
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Markowitz, H "SIMSCRIPT" view details
          in Belzer, J. ; A. G. Holzman, A. Kent, (eds) Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 1979 view details
  • Markowitz, H. M. "SIMSCRIPT: past, present, and some thoughts about the future" in Current Issues in Computer Simulation, eds. N. R. Adam and Ali Dogramaci, 27-60. New York: Academic Press 1979. view details
          in Belzer, J. ; A. G. Holzman, A. Kent, (eds) Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 1979 view details
  • Schmidt, B "Simulation of discrete systems using GPSS-FORTRAN" pp. 84-86 view details
          in The Computer Journal 25(1) 1984 view details
  • Markowitz, Harry M. "Efficient Portfolios, Sparse Matrices, and Entities: A Retrospective" Operations Research 50(1) January 2002 view details Extract: Anecdote
    The SIMSCRIPT [I] language was implemented as a preprocessor into FORTRAN. Bernie Hausner programmed the preprocessor; Herb Karr wrote
    the programming manual . The three of us jointly designed the fine details of the language.
          in The Computer Journal 25(1) 1984 view details
  • Markowitz, Harry M. "Oral history interview by Jeffrey R. Yost, 18 March 2002, San Diego, California". OH 333 Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. view details Extract: Anecdote
    So SPS-I was done, and we were now working on SPS-II, later called
    SIMSCRIPT. We asked him to write a programming manual for SPS-I. He said, “By the time I finish the programming manual, SPS-II will be ready. Let’s just write a programming manual for SPS-II.” Then we did the little exercise where we renamed it SIMSCRIPT. The result was a
    collaboration between Bernie Hauser, who did the programming, he programmed the preprocessor into FORTRAN; and Herb Karr who wrote the manual; and me. What was I doing? The three of us would meet together a couple of times a week and work out the fine details of the
    language. I guess when I wasn’t helping design the fine details of the language maybe I was reading a math book. But anyway, SIMSCRIPT I came out.
          in The Computer Journal 25(1) 1984 view details