Job Control Language 

Job Control Language.

Batch language on IBM OS/360 systems. Notoriously difficult to program in.

Related languages
JCL => APG   Targetting
JCL => EXEC   Influence
JCL => HYPOL   Incorporated some features of
JCL => JCL   Influence

  • Flores, Ivan "Job Control Language and file definition" Englelwood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall 1971 view details
  • Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 138 view details
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 308 view details Abstract: PREFACE  AND  INTRODUCTION
    The exact number of all the programming languages still in use, and those which are no longer used, is unknown. Zemanek calls the abundance of programming languages and their many dialects a "language Babel". When a new programming language is developed, only its name is known at first and it takes a while before publications about it appear. For some languages, the only relevant literature stays inside the individual companies; some are reported on in papers and magazines; and only a few, such as ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, and PL/1, become known to a wider public through various text- and handbooks. The situation surrounding the application of these languages in many computer centers is a similar one.

    There are differing opinions on the concept "programming languages". What is called a programming language by some may be termed a program, a processor, or a generator by others. Since there are no sharp borderlines in the field of programming languages, works were considered here which deal with machine languages, assemblers, autocoders, syntax and compilers, processors and generators, as well as with general higher programming languages.

    The bibliography contains some 2,700 titles of books, magazines and essays for around 300 programming languages. However, as shown by the "Overview of Existing Programming Languages", there are more than 300 such languages. The "Overview" lists a total of 676 programming languages, but this is certainly incomplete. One author ' has already announced the "next 700 programming languages"; it is to be hoped the many users may be spared such a great variety for reasons of compatibility. The graphic representations (illustrations 1 & 2) show the development and proportion of the most widely-used programming languages, as measured by the number of publications listed here and by the number of computer manufacturers and software firms who have implemented the language in question. The illustrations show FORTRAN to be in the lead at the present time. PL/1 is advancing rapidly, although PL/1 compilers are not yet seen very often outside of IBM.

    Some experts believe PL/1 will replace even the widely-used languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL.4) If this does occur, it will surely take some time - as shown by the chronological diagram (illustration 2) .

    It would be desirable from the user's point of view to reduce this language confusion down to the most advantageous languages. Those languages still maintained should incorporate the special facets and advantages of the otherwise superfluous languages. Obviously such demands are not in the interests of computer production firms, especially when one considers that a FORTRAN program can be executed on nearly all third-generation computers.

    The titles in this bibliography are organized alphabetically according to programming language, and within a language chronologically and again alphabetically within a given year. Preceding the first programming language in the alphabet, literature is listed on several languages, as are general papers on programming languages and on the theory of formal languages (AAA).
    As far as possible, the most of titles are based on autopsy. However, the bibliographical description of sone titles will not satisfy bibliography-documentation demands, since they are based on inaccurate information in various sources. Translation titles whose original titles could not be found through bibliographical research were not included. ' In view of the fact that nany libraries do not have the quoted papers, all magazine essays should have been listed with the volume, the year, issue number and the complete number of pages (e.g. pp. 721-783), so that interlibrary loans could take place with fast reader service. Unfortunately, these data were not always found.

    It is hoped that this bibliography will help the electronic data processing expert, and those who wish to select the appropriate programming language from the many available, to find a way through the language Babel.

    We wish to offer special thanks to Mr. Klaus G. Saur and the staff of Verlag Dokumentation for their publishing work.

    Graz / Austria, May, 1973
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Dakin RJ "A general control language: language structure and translation" view details Abstract: This paper develops the structure of a common interface language for accessing the facilities of a variety of operating systems. Major design criteria are the linguistic implications of job control specification and ease of translation to existing job control languages with a view to implementation on a satellite system connected to main frames via RJE links. The main features which emerge are a generalisation of function calls in which the parameter list constitutes a separate entity, the use of assignments of limited scope to provide a flexible means for handling options, a method for controlling the sequence of generated JCL based on chained strings and a variety of facilities which allow a user to modify the user image to suit his own requirements. The translator has been implemented on two computers and used to generate JCL for three target systems; the implementations appear to be sufficiently economical in resource requirements for satellite use.
    External link: Online copy
          in The Computer Journal 18(4) November 1975 view details
  • Prakash, Naveen and Sharma, Y. K. "An integrated data base language" pp82-96 view details Extract: Introduction
    Since the introduction of the concept of an integrated  data base, it has been a constant endeavour of DBMS designers to provide a "good" interfaces to the data base users.  Such attempts have,  however, relied heavily on "the fact that an operating system and a language compiler are available and that they (the DBMS  designers) did not want to tamper with them" (Olle 72),  This attitude  towards DBMS design in general, has resulted in ad-hoc solutions to the data base problem (Park 77) and lacks in a coherent approach  to the issues involved therein.
    Our aim in this report, is to first identify the requirements of a data base user and then to develop a user interface which fulfills theae requirements in a coherent manner.  We feel  that  it  is only then that ue shall be able to equip a data base user  with a data base language in the true sense of the term.

          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Ashley, R. and J. N. Fernandez (1984). Job control language. New York, Wiley. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Chandler, L. J. (1985). Invitation to DOS JCL for application programmers. Princeton, N.J., Petrocelli Books. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Leben, J. and J. Arnold (1986). MVS program development and cataloged procedures : JCL book 3. New York, Wiley. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Rindfleisch, D. H. (1987). OS and VS job control language and utility programs. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • UIC "JCL Statement Format" 1987 view details External link: Online at UIC Abstract: JCL (Job Control Language)  is used to  communicate with the IBM mainframe com-
    puter operating system in batch (or  non-interactive)  mode.   There are only a
    few statement types in JCL.   This document is an introduction to the format of
    these JCL statements, with an emphasis on their use at the UIC Computer Center.
    For more information,  the following  are recommended:   System/370 Job Control
    Language,  by Gary Deward Brown (John Wiley and Sons),  is a good comprehensive
    text on JCL, and the IBM manual on JCL,  OS MVS JCL,  IBM number GC28-1300 is a
    complete JCL reference.
    Extract: Intro
    JCL stands for the Job Control Language used to communicate with an IBM computer's OS/MVS operating system in batch  (or non-interactive)  mode.   JCL statements are identified by the  presence of // or /* in columns 1  and 2 or //* in columns 1-3.

    A typical JCL statement begins with a // identifier in columns 1 and 2.   A JCL statement that begins  with a //* is a  comment statement to be  printed on the JCL listing,  and it is not interpreted by the operating system.   A JCL statement consisting of the /* identifier in columns 1 and 2, followed by a blank in column 3, is used as a separator between parts of a job.   The /* identifier is also  used in  columns 1  and 2  of several  special JCL  statements,  such  as
    /*JOBPARM, /*MESSAGE, /*OUTPUT and /*ROUTE statements.   These are discussed in "Job Definition Statements" on  page 3.   A statement consisting only  of // in columns 1 and 2, with the rest of the line blank,  indicates the end of a batch job.

    All alphabetic characters  in any JCL statement  must be entered in  upper case only.   Some of the sample JCL statements  given in this document have selected words in lower case and others in upper case.   Where this occurs, the portions given in upper case must be used exactly as they are given, and you are free to substitute your own values for the words given in lower case.   Of course, when
    you make this substitution, make sure that all the letters  you use are upper case.

          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Carathanassis, M. (1989). Expert MVS/XA JCL. New York, Intertext Publications : McGraw-Hill. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Rosendorf, B. (1990). IBM OS job control language and utility programs. Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Publishers. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Carmandi, O. (1992). MVS/JCL : quick reference guide. Boston, QED Technical Pub. view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings J63 view details
          in SIGPLAN Notices 14(07) July 1979 view details
    • Emulator