Conversational FORTRAN 

for QUIcK forTRAN

IBM 1965

Interactive subset of FORTRAN

Related languages

  • Schwartz, Jules I. "Online programming" pp199-203 view details Abstract: When the transition has been made from off:line to online programming, there are a number of changes in the working conditions noted. These changes in the environment make necessary corresponding changes in the processes related to producing and checking out programs. In the main, it is not the programming language itself which must be changed to provide a facility for the online user; it is the system surrounding the programming language. In this paper the online environment and its effect on programming are discussed.
          in [ACM] CACM 9(03) March 1966 includes proceedings of the ACM Programming Languages and Pragmatics Conference, San Dimas, California, August 1965 view details
  • Clapp, Lewis "Time-Sharing System Scorecard" Computer Research Corporation 1967 view details
          in [ACM] CACM 9(03) March 1966 includes proceedings of the ACM Programming Languages and Pragmatics Conference, San Dimas, California, August 1965 view details
  • IBM Information Marketing, "Fundamentals Using QUIKTRAN," 1967. view details
          in [ACM] CACM 9(03) March 1966 includes proceedings of the ACM Programming Languages and Pragmatics Conference, San Dimas, California, August 1965 view details
  • Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1967" view details
          in Computers & Automation 16(6) June 1967 view details
  • Bennington, Bernard J. "Man-machine interaction in the design of rotating electrical machines" view details Extract: Introduction
    The overall QUIKTRAN system is made up of the following components:
    (1) The computer system, which is located at an IBM Center. In our specific instance, the computer is an IBM 7044 located at Cleveland, Ohio, 120 miles away.
    (2) The terminals, which are typewriter-like devices located in the offices of the user. All terminals. Hence, the user need have no knowledge of the computer system to use QUIKTRAN. The  terminals are connected to the computer by ordinary telephone lines equipped with special telephones.
    (3) The QUIKTRAN language, which is a subset of FORTRAN IV, allows the use of arithmetic terms quite similar to standard algebraic notation. Hence, the QUIKTRAN system is simple to learn because it requires no previous computer system knowledge or programming experience on the part of the user.

    Each user has a designated storage area on disc file at the computer, to permit the saving of program material. The basic QUIKTRAN language is augmented by a set of operating commands and a set of terminal commands, which allow the user to organize and manipulate his program material with respect to this storage area. You can, therefore, re-use a program when you need it without having to re-enter it into the system from the terminal. Programs of general interest are maintained in a storage area common to all users. Up to 50 terminals can communicate with the computer simultaneously to solve problems, as the system is time-shared. As far as each user is concerned, he is the only one on the system. The time delay in servicing requests by the terminal has proved to be negligible.
    The terminals are of two types, the IBM 2741 and the IBM 1050. The terminals used in our system are the former. The latter may be fitted with a slow speed card reader and card punch to facilitate input~output. Experience was gained with both types before deciding to use the 2741's. Conversational communication comes about by the facility to program the writing of output information and input request to the terminal, during execution. By means of this facility, the program can be organized in such a way that it can describe its own purpose and request the data as it needs it. By requesting alphabetic information, the program can require the user to make a decision and answer in English.

          in Proceedings of the 6th annual design automation workshop Annual ACM IEEE Design Automation Conference 1969 view details
  • Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 view details Abstract: 321 Programmiersprachen mit Angabe der Computer-Hersteller, auf deren Anlagen die entsprechenden Sprachen verwendet werden kennen. Register der 74 Computer-Firmen; Reihenfolge der Programmiersprachen nach der Anzahl der Herstellerfirmen, auf deren Anlagen die Sprache implementiert ist; Reihenfolge der Herstellerfirmen nach der Anzahl der verwendeten Programmiersprachen.

    [321 programming languages with indication of the computer manufacturers, on whose machinery the appropriate languages are used to know.  Register of the 74 computer companies;  Sequence of the programming languages after the number of manufacturing firms, on whose plants the language is implemented;  Sequence of the manufacturing firms after the number of used programming languages.]
          in Proceedings of the 6th annual design automation workshop Annual ACM IEEE Design Automation Conference 1969 view details
  • Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 235 view details
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details
  • Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 496 view details Abstract: PREFACE  AND  INTRODUCTION
    The exact number of all the programming languages still in use, and those which are no longer used, is unknown. Zemanek calls the abundance of programming languages and their many dialects a "language Babel". When a new programming language is developed, only its name is known at first and it takes a while before publications about it appear. For some languages, the only relevant literature stays inside the individual companies; some are reported on in papers and magazines; and only a few, such as ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, and PL/1, become known to a wider public through various text- and handbooks. The situation surrounding the application of these languages in many computer centers is a similar one.

    There are differing opinions on the concept "programming languages". What is called a programming language by some may be termed a program, a processor, or a generator by others. Since there are no sharp borderlines in the field of programming languages, works were considered here which deal with machine languages, assemblers, autocoders, syntax and compilers, processors and generators, as well as with general higher programming languages.

    The bibliography contains some 2,700 titles of books, magazines and essays for around 300 programming languages. However, as shown by the "Overview of Existing Programming Languages", there are more than 300 such languages. The "Overview" lists a total of 676 programming languages, but this is certainly incomplete. One author ' has already announced the "next 700 programming languages"; it is to be hoped the many users may be spared such a great variety for reasons of compatibility. The graphic representations (illustrations 1 & 2) show the development and proportion of the most widely-used programming languages, as measured by the number of publications listed here and by the number of computer manufacturers and software firms who have implemented the language in question. The illustrations show FORTRAN to be in the lead at the present time. PL/1 is advancing rapidly, although PL/1 compilers are not yet seen very often outside of IBM.

    Some experts believe PL/1 will replace even the widely-used languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL.4) If this does occur, it will surely take some time - as shown by the chronological diagram (illustration 2) .

    It would be desirable from the user's point of view to reduce this language confusion down to the most advantageous languages. Those languages still maintained should incorporate the special facets and advantages of the otherwise superfluous languages. Obviously such demands are not in the interests of computer production firms, especially when one considers that a FORTRAN program can be executed on nearly all third-generation computers.

    The titles in this bibliography are organized alphabetically according to programming language, and within a language chronologically and again alphabetically within a given year. Preceding the first programming language in the alphabet, literature is listed on several languages, as are general papers on programming languages and on the theory of formal languages (AAA).
    As far as possible, the most of titles are based on autopsy. However, the bibliographical description of sone titles will not satisfy bibliography-documentation demands, since they are based on inaccurate information in various sources. Translation titles whose original titles could not be found through bibliographical research were not included. ' In view of the fact that nany libraries do not have the quoted papers, all magazine essays should have been listed with the volume, the year, issue number and the complete number of pages (e.g. pp. 721-783), so that interlibrary loans could take place with fast reader service. Unfortunately, these data were not always found.

    It is hoped that this bibliography will help the electronic data processing expert, and those who wish to select the appropriate programming language from the many available, to find a way through the language Babel.

    We wish to offer special thanks to Mr. Klaus G. Saur and the staff of Verlag Dokumentation for their publishing work.

    Graz / Austria, May, 1973
          in Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972 view details